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Vulnerability of the Fetus/Infant to PAH, PM2.5 AND ETS.

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Identifier:
First received: September 3, 2002
Last updated: October 14, 2014
Last verified: October 2014
The goal of this study is to examine the effects of in utero and postnatal exposure to environmental pollutants in a cohort of pregnant women and their newborns in Krakow, Poland


Study Type: Observational
Study Design: Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: Vulnerability of the Fetus/Infant to PAH, PM2.5 AND ETS

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Fetal growth [ Time Frame: Birth ]
    Fetal growth is assessed at birth by weight, length, head circumference, and size for gestational age

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Childhood growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes [ Time Frame: 3 months - 3 years ]
    At 6 months of age, information regarding physical growth was collected from pediatric assessment and neurobehavioral development was evaluated using the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence. At one year of age and annual time intervals thereafter, physical growth was assessed during a pediatric examination and neurobehavioral development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

Biospecimen Retention:   Samples With DNA
Biologic samples were collected from the mothers and their children as follows: maternal blood (30-35 ml) within 1 day postpartum and umbilical cord blood (30 - 60 ml) collected by delivery room staff immediately after the cord was cut. Members of the research staff transported the samples to the laboratory immediately. The buffy coat, packed red blood cells, and plasma samples were separated and stored at -70°C and then shipped to Columbia University. Placental tissue and meconium were also collected. The placental tissue and meconium were sent to Columbia and stored for future analysis under separate funding.

Enrollment: 505
Study Start Date: February 2000
Study Completion Date: January 2006
Primary Completion Date: January 2006 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Detailed Description:
There is growing concern about adverse developmental effects in infants and young children from prenatal exposure to environmental air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particulate matter (PM2.5), and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The proposed study combines expertise in molecular epidemiology and biomarkers, state-of- the-art pollutant monitoring techniques, and a strong theoretical framework to guide assessment of the impacts of these pollutants on fetal and child growth and development. The specific aims are: 1. To test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) adversely affects fetal growth and early childhood growth and development, after controlling for non-PAH components of PM2.5, ETS, nutritional status (essential fatty acids and antioxidants) and other potential confounders; 2. To explore whether non-PAH components of PM2.5, and ETS have an independent effect on birth outcomes and childhood growth and development, after controlling for PAH, and to explore possible interactions between PAH, PM2.5 and ETS; and 3. To estimate the relative contribution of ambient PAH pollution vs. ETS and other indoor PAH sources to a) personal PAH exposure and PAH-DNA adducts and b) impairment of fetal growth and early child development. To achieve these aims, the international team of researchers will carry out a prospective cohort study of 400 nonsmoking pregnant women living in Krakow, Poland, and will follow their newborns for 12 months postnatally. Fetal growth will be assessed at birth by weight, length, head circumference, and size for gestational age. Childhood growth and developmental outcomes will be measured using the Fagan Test and the Bayley Scales. Strengths of the research include the combination of personal inhalation monitoring of PAH and PM2.5 with biomarkers (umbilical cord blood levels of PAH-DNA adducts, cotinine, essential fatty acids, antioxidants and lead) to estimate in utero exposure to the pollutants of interest and potential confounders. The Polish cohort provides a valuable model for study since emissions from coal burning and traffic are relatively high. However, the results will be broadly applicable since exposures to PAH, ETS and PM2.5 during pregnancy are common in virtually all industrialized regions of the world. It is anticipated that this research will provide relevant data to policymakers concerned with protecting the health of young children.

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 40 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
Only Polish and Caucasian women and their children are included in the study. There are no race/ethnic minorities included because the Krakow population is ethnically and racially homogeneous (almost 100% Caucasian).

Inclusion criteria:

  • Pregnant women between 18 and 40 years old
  • Resided for at least 1 year within proximity to air monitoring station

Exclusion criteria:

  • Smoking/ illicit drugs
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Occupational exposure
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00044603

United States, New York
Columbia University, 722 W 168th St, 12th Floor
New York, New York, United States, 10032
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
Principal Investigator: Frederica P Perera, DrPH, PhD Columbia University
  More Information

Responsible Party: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Identifier: NCT00044603     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 10165-CP-001
Study First Received: September 3, 2002
Last Updated: October 14, 2014

Keywords provided by National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS):
Pregnancy processed this record on July 26, 2017