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Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Dose Brachytherapy (Short-Range Radiation Therapy) for Prostate Cancer

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Cancer Institute (NCI) ) Identifier:
First received: June 6, 2002
Last updated: May 12, 2017
Last verified: October 11, 2016

This study will evaluate the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for guiding placement of hollow needles into the prostate gland for delivering internal radiation therapy to patients with prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is often treated with a combination of external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy (internal radiation delivered close to the tumor). This study will determine whether MRI is more accurate in guiding needle placement than ultrasound, which is currently used for this purpose. Patients will have one brachytherapy treatment followed by 5 weeks of external beam treatments and a second brachytherapy.

Patients 18 years of age and older with prostate cancer that has not spread to the bone may be eligible for this study. Candidates will be screened with a physical examination, blood and urine tests, and a bone scan.

To plan for radiation therapy, patients will have standard computed tomography (CT) and MRI scans of the pelvis and prostate. In addition, CT and MRI scans will be done to determine if the prostate is in a good position for brachytherapy. For these scans, patients will have an enema and a tube will be placed in the rectum. They will then lie still on their side for about 45 minutes during the scan. Patients who have blood in their urine will also undergo cystoscopy. This is an examination of the bladder using a small camera that is advanced through the penis into the bladder.

Patients are given an antibiotic for 2 days before the brachytherapy and on the morning of the procedure. Before the test, they have a small enema and are given medicines through the vein and into the spine for relaxation and to decrease any discomfort. (The test is done under general anesthesia for patients who require it.) The patient is moved on a stretcher into the MRI scanner and a catheter is inserted into the bladder through the penis. The bladder is filled with water and a tube is placed in the rectum. With the help of a plastic guide placed against the skin, about 14 to 18 needles are then placed in the prostate. Some stitches are sewn to hold the needles and the guide in place, and the tube in the rectum is removed. The patient is the transferred from the MR scanner into the CT scanner, where the rectal tube is reinserted and the needles are adjusted. A cystoscopy is done to make sure the needles do not enter the bladder. When the needles are adjusted, the tube is removed from the rectum and the patient is moved to the radiation oncology clinic.

After a few hours, when the radiation dose has been calculated, a radioactive substance called iridium is administered. The needles placed in the prostate are connected to a radiation machine, and thin wires with radioactive material on the tips are inserted into each needle and withdrawn a little at a time. The process takes about 20 to 30 minutes. The patient is then disconnected from the machine and undergoes another MRI scan to confirm the position of the needles. The needles and catheter are then removed and the patient is monitored for a while before going home. Patients then have 5 weeks of external beam therapy, followed by a second brachytherapy treatment.

Patients return to the clinic at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after treatment for blood tests, physical examination, and review of symptoms.

Condition Intervention Phase
Prostate Cancer Radiation: Brachytherapy Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: No masking
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase II Study of MR-Guided High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Boosts For Prostate Cancer

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Cancer Institute (NCI) ):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • To evaluate the quality of brachytherapy implants performed under MR-guidance. [ Time Frame: 60 months ]

Enrollment: 12
Study Start Date: May 31, 2002
Study Completion Date: June 28, 2010
Primary Completion Date: July 29, 2004 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Brachy
Radiation: Brachytherapy
Patients will receive two HDR brachytherapy implants (950-1050 cGy/implant) before and at the end of a course of external beam radiotherapy (4600 cGy, 2Gy/day).

  Show Detailed Description


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 90 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Pathologically confirmed prostate cancer with the following features: Gleason score greater than 6, or greater than T2a, or PSA greater than or equal to 10, and no evidence of bone metastases

Age greater than or equal to 18 years

ECOG performance status of 0 or 1

Informed consent: All patients must sign a document of informed consent indicating their understanding of the investigational nature and risks of the study before any protocol related studies are performed (this does not include routine laboratory tests or imaging studies required to establish eligibility).


History of prior pelvic or prostate radiotherapy

TURP within the last 6 months or large TURP defect

Contraindication to implant procedure:

  • Bleeding disorder
  • Active anticoagulation at the time of implant
  • Artificial heart valve

Contraindication to MRI:

  • Patients weighing greater than 136 kgs (weight limit for the scanner tables)
  • Patients with pacemakers, cerebral aneurysm clips, shrapnel injury or implantable electronic devices.

Preexisting significant urinary obstructive symptoms as reflected by a high (greater than 18) International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)

Pubic arch interference or inadequate access to perineum as determined by preliminary MRI

Cognitively impaired patients who cannot give informed consent

Medically Unfit for Anesthesia as defined by an anesthesiology consultant

Other active malignancy (except for non-melanoma skin cancer or malignancy which was treated with curative intent at least 3 years ago with no further evidence of recurrent disease.)

Other urinary or medical conditions deemed by the PI or associates to make the patient ineligible for high dose rate brachytherapy and EBRT.

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00039624

United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Principal Investigator: Kevin A Camphausen, M.D. National Cancer Institute (NCI)
  More Information

Additional Information:
Responsible Party: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Identifier: NCT00039624     History of Changes
Obsolete Identifiers: NCT00045344
Other Study ID Numbers: 020207
Study First Received: June 6, 2002
Last Updated: May 12, 2017

Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Cancer Institute (NCI) ):
Radiation Therapy
Phase II
Prostate Cancer

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Prostatic Neoplasms
Genital Neoplasms, Male
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Genital Diseases, Male
Prostatic Diseases processed this record on June 22, 2017