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A Study to Compare Anti-HIV Drugs Given Twice a Day or Once a Day, With or Without Direct Observation

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00036452
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 13, 2002
Last Update Posted : May 21, 2012
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Brief Summary:
Anti-HIV drug therapy works best when the drugs are taken exactly as prescribed by a doctor. Because anti-HIV therapy often involves multiple drugs, some people have difficulty taking them all correctly. The easier it is to take anti-HIV drugs, the more likely people will take them as prescribed and get the best results. This study will see if people are more successful in taking anti-HIV drugs once a day or twice a day. It also will determine if having a health care professional oversee each weekday dose helps people control their HIV infection. The study will compare taking a three-drug combination twice a day versus taking a three-drug combination just once a day. The study will also compare patients taking the drugs on their own to patients taking the drugs in the presence of a clinical worker. Viral load (amount of HIV in the blood) and drug side effects will be measured.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
HIV Infections Drug: lopinavir/ritonavir Drug: emtricitabine Drug: stavudine Drug: tenofovir DF Phase 2

Detailed Description:

While many factors contribute to the success or failure of antiretroviral therapy for HIV, among the most important are factors that influence adherence to a treatment regimen, such as duration of therapy, dosing frequency, pill burden, side effects, and patient behaviors. Inconsistent adherence or nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy can result in suboptimal drug exposure. Suboptimal drug exposure can, in turn, impact short- and long-term patient outcomes by increasing the likelihood of drug resistant HIV mutants and subsequent virologic and clinical failure. It is therefore essential to design treatment regimens that promote long-term adherence to potent antiretroviral therapy. This study will evaluate the relative contribution of reduced-frequency dosing and directly observed therapy on the magnitude and durability of virologic suppression in patients treated with potent antiretroviral therapy.

Patients will be randomly assigned to one of three study arms. Arms A, B, and C receive the same daily dosage of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), emtricitabine (FTC), and stavudine extended release (d4T XR) or tenofovir DF (TDF). In Arm A, drugs are self-administered for 48 weeks; LPV/r is taken twice daily and FTC and d4T XR or TDF once daily. In Arm B, all drugs are self-administered once daily for 48 weeks. In Arm C, drugs are taken once a day under directly observed therapy during Weeks 0-24, and then by self-administration during Weeks 25-48. Adherence to the regimen is measured using an electronic drug monitoring system. Viral load, CD4 and CD8 T cell responses, population pharmacokinetics, and quality of life indicators are measured throughout the study. The tolerability and safety of the treatment regimens are also monitored.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 402 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized, Phase II, Open Label Study to Compare Twice Daily and Once Daily Potent Antiretroviral Therapy and to Compare Self-Administered Therapy and Therapy Administered Under Direct Observation
Actual Study Completion Date : January 2006

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   13 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria

  • HIV infection
  • Age 13 years or older and have written consent of guardian if under 18
  • Weigh at least 88 pounds
  • Viral load of 2000 copies/ml or more within 90 days before study entry
  • Have not taken anti-HIV drugs for more than 7 days
  • Agree to use acceptable methods of contraception during the study and for 1 month after stopping the study drugs

Exclusion Criteria

  • Pregnant or breastfeeding
  • In jail
  • Sensitive or allergic to any part of the study drugs
  • Treated with acute systemic therapy for a serious infection or other serious medical illness within 7 days prior to study entry, unless the participant has completed 7 days of therapy and is clinically stable
  • Recent serious illness, including pancreatitis or peripheral neuropathy
  • Alcohol or illicit drug abuse
  • Taken any of the following within 14 days before study entry: investigational drugs, anti-HIV vaccines, drugs that may cause pancreatitis or peripheral neuropathy, or drugs that are associated with CYP3A
  • Treated for cancer (not including minimal Kaposi's sarcoma) within 30 days before study entry
  • History of mental illness that might interfere with the study

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00036452

Show Show 29 study locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
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Study Chair: Donna Mildvan, MD Beth Israel Medical Center
Study Chair: Charles Flexner, MD Johns Hopkins University Hospital
Publications of Results:
Other Publications:
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Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier: NCT00036452    
Other Study ID Numbers: A5073
10073 ( Registry Identifier: DAIDS ES )
ACTG A5073
First Posted: May 13, 2002    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 21, 2012
Last Verified: May 2012
Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Drug Administration Schedule
HIV Protease Inhibitors
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Self Care
Viral Load
Directly Observed Therapy
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
Treatment Naive
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
HIV Protease Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-HIV Agents
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors