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Risk Factors for Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn

This study has been completed.
Information provided by:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Identifier:
First received: May 25, 2000
Last updated: May 12, 2016
Last verified: October 2005
To conduct a multicenter case-control study of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) in relation to maternal exposure to smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Also, to assess other potential antenatal risk factors and collect and store buccal cell specimens for future analyses.

Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome
Lung Diseases

Study Type: Observational

Further study details as provided by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI):

Study Start Date: April 1998
Study Completion Date: March 2004
Detailed Description:


Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), previously called persistent fetal circulation, is a birth defect affecting approximately 1 in 1250 liveborn term infants; even with complex and high-risk interventions, PPHN results in substantial mortality and morbidity. This defect results from the inappropriate muscularization of fetal pulmonary vessels, and experimental and human evidence consistently suggests that maternal cigarette smoking and antenatal exposure to NSAIDs, particularly aspirin or ibuprofen, may play a role in the etiology of this condition. Because these exposures are quite prevalent (e.g., ibuprofen is currently taken in the first trimester or later in pregnancy by 15 percent and 3.2 percent of women, respectively), testing these hypotheses is of considerable public health importance.


The multicenter study had a case-control design. There were 560 case infants with PPHN and four controls per case (2240). All controls were drawn from the birth hospitals of cases; half the controls had malformations other than PPHN, and half had normal formations. Cases and controls were identified within five months of birth at 88 birth and tertiary hospitals in the areas surrounding Boston, Philadelphia, and Toronto. Mothers of subjects were interviewed by telephone within six months of delivery; a standardized questionnaire inquired in detail about demographic factors; reproductive, medical, and pregnancy illness histories; medication use (including a detailed focus on use of over-the-counter analgesic/antipyretic medications), smoking, and nutrition. Because of emerging genetic research suggesting an effect of NSAIDs on pathways possibly related to the etiology of PPHN, buccal swabs were also collected and stored for future analyses. Exposure prevalences were compared between mothers of cases and controls and relative risks were estimated, controlling for potential confounding factors.

The study completion date listed in this record was obtained from the "End Date" entered in the Protocol Registration and Results System (PRS) record.


Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 100 Years   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
No eligibility criteria
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00005497

Sponsors and Collaborators
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
OverallOfficial: Allen Mitchell Boston University
  More Information

Publications: Identifier: NCT00005497     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 5015  R01HL058763 
Study First Received: May 25, 2000
Last Updated: May 12, 2016
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Lung Diseases
Persistent Fetal Circulation Syndrome
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Hypertension, Pulmonary
Infant, Newborn, Diseases processed this record on October 26, 2016