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Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: May 26, 2000
Last Update Posted: March 16, 2016
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
To examine markers of underlying chronic inflammation and infection as potential risk factors for future myocardial infarction (MI), stroke (CVA), and venous thromboembolism (VTE) in plasma samples collected at baseline from healthy participants in the Physicians' Health Study (PHS).

Cardiovascular Diseases Coronary Disease Cerebrovascular Accident Myocardial Infarction Venous Thromboembolism Heart Diseases Infection Chlamydia Infections Cytomegalovirus Infections Helicobacter Infections Herpesviridae Infections Inflammation

Study Type: Observational

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI):

Study Start Date: September 1998
Study Completion Date: August 2002
Detailed Description:


The PHS is a cohort which included 14,916 men initially free of cardiovascular disease and cancer who provided plasma samples at study entry in 1982. These men were randomly assigned in a factorial design to aspirin or beta-carotene therapy, and have been followed prospectively for the occurrence of vascular disease.


Employing a nested case-control design, baseline plasma samples are assayed for four markers of inflammation (interleukin-6, TNF-alpha, soluble ICAM, soluble VCAM) and four markers of chronic infection (antibody titers directed against Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus). Case subjects are those study participants who have subsequently developed MI (N=550), CVA (N=400), or VTE (N=200). Control subjects are selected from those study participants who remained healthy during follow-up and are matched to the cases by age, smoking status, and follow-up time. Data on usual cardiovascular risk factors, lipid parameters, and hemostatic markers of risk are already available in the PHS and will be used to evaluate the results for potential confounding and effect modification. Since the PHS was a randomized trial of low-dose aspirin for its initial 5 years, this cohort also provides the unique opportunity to investigate whether the use of an agent with anti-inflammatory properties modifies the risk of subsequent thrombosis among those with underlying inflammation. Indeed, this intriguing hypothesis has recently been raised regarding data relating another marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein, to future risks of myocardial infarction and stroke.

These analyses will take advantage of an existing blood bank from a well-characterized large cohort with many years of follow-up and high quality end-point verification. Thus, this study could provide an efficient and cost-effective mechanism to evaluate the posited, but unproven roles of inflammation and infection as risk factors for future cardiovascular disease.

The study completion date listed in this record was obtained from the "End Date" entered in the Protocol Registration and Results System (PRS) record.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 100 Years   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
No eligibility criteria
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00005496

Sponsors and Collaborators
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
OverallOfficial: Paul Ridker Brigham and Women's Hospital
  More Information

Ridker PM, Rifai N, Stampfer MJ, Hennekens CH. Plasma concentration of interleukin-6 and the risk of future myocardial infarction among apparently healthy men. Circulation. 2000 Apr 18;101(15):1767-72.
Rifai N, Tracy RP, Ridker PM. Clinical efficacy of an automated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein assay. Clin Chem. 1999 Dec;45(12):2136-41.
Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Stampfer MJ, Wang F. Prospective study of herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and the risk of future myocardial infarction and stroke. Circulation. 1998 Dec 22-29;98(25):2796-9.
Blake GJ, Ridker PM. High sensitivity C-reactive protein for predicting cardiovascular disease: an inflammatory hypothesis. Eur Heart J. 2001 Mar;22(5):349-52.
Zee RY, Bates D, Ridker PM. A prospective evaluation of the CD14 and CD18 gene polymorphisms and risk of stroke. Stroke. 2002 Apr;33(4):892-5.
Liu S, Manson JE, Buring JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Ridker PM. Relation between a diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Mar;75(3):492-8.
Zee RY, Lunze K, Lindpaintner K, Ridker PM. A prospective evaluation of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist intron 2 gene polymorphism and the risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost. 2001 Nov;86(5):1141-3.
Albert MA, Rifai N, Ridker PM. Plasma levels of cystatin-C and mannose binding protein are not associated with risk of developing systemic atherosclerosis. Vasc Med. 2001;6(3):145-9.
Blake GJ, Schmitz C, Lindpaintner K, Ridker PM. Mutation in the promoter region of the beta-fibrinogen gene and the risk of future myocardial infarction, stroke and venous thrombosis. Eur Heart J. 2001 Dec;22(24):2262-6.
Blake GJ, Dada N, Fox JC, Manson JE, Ridker PM. A prospective evaluation of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) levels and the risk of future cardiovascular events in women. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Nov 1;38(5):1302-6.
Chae CU, Lee RT, Rifai N, Ridker PM. Blood pressure and inflammation in apparently healthy men. Hypertension. 2001 Sep;38(3):399-403.
Ridker PM, Danesh J, Youngman L, Collins R, Stampfer MJ, Peto R, Hennekens CH. A prospective study of Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and the risk for future myocardial infarction among socioeconomically similar U.S. men. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Aug 7;135(3):184-8.
Pradhan AD, Manson JE, Rifai N, Buring JE, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2001 Jul 18;286(3):327-34.
Ridker PM, Rifai N, Clearfield M, Downs JR, Weis SE, Miles JS, Gotto AM Jr; Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study Investigators. Measurement of C-reactive protein for the targeting of statin therapy in the primary prevention of acute coronary events. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jun 28;344(26):1959-65.
Zee RY, Lindpaintner K, Struk B, Hennekens CH, Ridker PM. A prospective evaluation of the CD14 C(-260)T gene polymorphism and the risk of myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis. 2001 Feb 15;154(3):699-702.
Redberg RF, Rifai N, Gee L, Ridker PM. Lack of association of C-reactive protein and coronary calcium by electron beam computed tomography in postmenopausal women: implications for coronary artery disease screening. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Jul;36(1):39-43.
Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Rifai N. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med. 2000 Mar 23;342(12):836-43.
Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Kundsin R, Shih J. Baseline IgG antibody titers to Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus and the risk for cardiovascular disease in women. Ann Intern Med. 1999 Oct 19;131(8):573-7.
Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Rifai N, Buring JE, Manson JE. Hormone replacement therapy and increased plasma concentration of C-reactive protein. Circulation. 1999 Aug 17;100(7):713-6.
Blake GJ, Otvos JD, Rifai N, Ridker PM. Low-density lipoprotein particle concentration and size as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as predictors of cardiovascular disease in women. Circulation. 2002 Oct 8;106(15):1930-7.
Pradhan AD, Rifai N, Ridker PM. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1, and the development of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease in men. Circulation. 2002 Aug 13;106(7):820-5.
Zee RY, Bates D, Ridker PM. A prospective evaluation of the heat shock protein 70 gene polymorphisms and the risk of stroke. Thromb Haemost. 2002 Apr;87(4):622-5.
Zee RY, Ridker PM. Polymorphism in the human C-reactive protein (CRP) gene, plasma concentrations of CRP, and the risk of future arterial thrombosis. Atherosclerosis. 2002 May;162(1):217-9.
Zee RY, Hegener HH, Cook NR, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein gene polymorphisms and the risk of venous thromboembolism: a haplotype-based analysis. J Thromb Haemost. 2004 Aug;2(8):1240-3.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00005496     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 5014
R01HL058755 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Submitted: May 25, 2000
First Posted: May 26, 2000
Last Update Posted: March 16, 2016
Last Verified: February 2005

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Communicable Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Heart Diseases
Myocardial Infarction
Venous Thromboembolism
Coronary Disease
Coronary Artery Disease
Cytomegalovirus Infections
Helicobacter Infections
Chlamydia Infections
Herpesviridae Infections
Pathologic Processes
Myocardial Ischemia
Vascular Diseases
Embolism and Thrombosis
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
DNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases

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