Gender Response To Coronary Risk

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00005224
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 26, 2000
Last Update Posted : February 18, 2016
Information provided by:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)

Brief Summary:
To examine sex differences in behavioral and psychosocial variables such as occupation, Type A behavior, and hostility as they related to primary coronary risk factors.

Condition or disease
Cardiovascular Diseases Heart Diseases Coronary Disease

Detailed Description:


Although coronary heart disease is a major factor in morbidity and mortality in both sexes, most studies prior to 1988 when the study was initiated focused on men and overlooked the magnitude of the problem in women. Coronary heart disease mortality and morbidity rates are higher in men than in women, accounting for 41 percent of the sex difference in overall mortality in the United States. Women's advantage, however, does not seem to be stable over time nor universal. For example, in 1920, the age adjusted ratio of male to female coronary heart disease deaths was approximately equal, but between 1975 and 1978, it has increased to a level of 2.47 in the United States. Also, sex mortality ratios for heart disease differ widely across countries ranging from 5/1 in Finland to 1.87/1 in Yugoslavia. Thus, relying on biological differences alone when explaining this sex differential is not convincing.

Based on Framingham data, among the most important risk factors predicting coronary heart disease in both women and men are--aside from age--cholesterol, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure. Consistent with the observation that men are more likely to fall victim to coronary heart disease than women is the fact that they also exhibit higher levels of these risk factors when compared to women, at least up to the age of 45. Standardization of risk factor levels and controlling for both levels of risk factors on coronary heart disease probabilities eliminated the sex differential in 45 to 54 year olds of the Framingham Study. However, among the 55 to 74 year olds, the sex differential was not due to differences in levels or impact of the risk factors. It was conceivable that the sex mortality differential at the older ages was due to the sex differential in primary coronary risk factors at the younger ages.

Of particular interest was the fact that the primary risk factors appeared to be influenced by behavior. It was possible that gender differences in behavior might explain gender differences in primary coronary risk factors. Alternatively, there was some evidence that the primary coronary risk factors were not solely responsible for the etiology of coronary heart disease. Gender differences in psychosocial variables, such as Type A behavior, hostility, and occupational stress that might play independent roles in the etiology of coronary heart disease had not been systematically investigated.


Gender differences in primary risk factors were determined, with all analyses being controlled for body mass since men score higher on body mass index than women and body mass is related to levels of primary coronary risk factors. One-way analyses of covariance were performed for plasma lipids and lipoproteins, blood pressure, and heart rate. Gender differences in psychosocial variables associated with coronary risk were investigated. Analyses were performed on primary coronary risk factors at baseline in order to investigate the relationships of occupational characteristics such as demand and control with age and body mass index. Covariance analyses were performed for Type A/Type B by high and low occupational control and by high and low demand for each sex. The role of parental history of heart disease, Type A behavior and smoking in elevated primary coronary risk factors among oral contraceptive users were also investigated.

The study completion date listed in this record was obtained from the "End Date" entered in the Protocol Registration and Results System (PRS) record.

Study Type : Observational
Study Start Date : April 1988
Actual Study Completion Date : March 1990

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 100 Years   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
No eligibility criteria

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00005224

Sponsors and Collaborators
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
OverallOfficial: Gerdi Weidner State University of New York

Publications: Identifier: NCT00005224     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 1103
R01HL040368 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: May 26, 2000    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: February 18, 2016
Last Verified: March 2005

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Cardiovascular Diseases
Heart Diseases
Coronary Disease
Coronary Artery Disease
Myocardial Ischemia
Vascular Diseases
Arterial Occlusive Diseases