We updated the design of this site on September 25th. Learn more.
Show more
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

Genetics of Low Density Lipoprotein Subclasses in Hypercholesterolemia

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: May 26, 2000
Last Update Posted: February 10, 2016
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Information provided by:
University of Washington
To perform genetic studies of low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses in 160 families in whom the probands had metabolically defined hypercholesterolemia.

Cardiovascular Diseases Heart Diseases Hypercholesterolemia

Study Type: Observational

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by University of Washington:

Study Start Date: July 1987
Estimated Study Completion Date: June 1992
Detailed Description:


Low density lipoprotein cholesterol has been convincingly established as a major coronary heart disease risk factor by many epidemiologic studies, clinical trials, and experimental studies. A strong inverse association exists between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease. However, the status of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and plasma triglyceride levels as independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease is less clear. Case control studies have shown a positive association between coronary heart disease and plasma levels of apoprotein B, the major protein on LDL particles, and an inverse relationship with apoprotein AI, the primary protein constituent of HDL particles. In fact, it has been proposed that plasma levels of the apoproteins may be stronger risk factors than lipid levels. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying variations in both lipoprotein and apoprotein levels among individuals is essential to elucidating the etiology of coronary heart disease in the general population.

Cardiovascular disease is also known to cluster in families, and this may be related to the clustering of lipid and lipoprotein levels among family members. A review suggested that the familial aggregation of heart disease may be primarily a reflection of the familial aggregation of known risk factors, including cholesterol levels. The work of Goldstein and Brown on familial hypercholesterolemia demonstrated that genetic control of lipoprotein metabolism can play a causative role in the development of atherosclerosis. However, familial hypercholesterolemia is a relatively rare disorder: the prevalence of heterozygotes is estimated to be 1 in 500, homozygotes 1 in a million. In 1987, little was understood about more common genetic contributions to lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities leading to the familial aggregation of coronary heart disease.


The design was that of a cross-sectional family study. The recruitment and screening of probands were conducted over a four-year period at the University of Texas at Dallas under separate funding. The recruitment and screening of first-degree relatives were carried out at Berkeley. Blood samples were obtained from relatives for LDL subclass analysis and for lipid and apoprotein determination. An interview was conducted to obtain demographic information and information on behavioral and environmental risk factors such as smoking, exercise, and diet. The data were used to determine whether LDL subclasses were genetically controlled in families with hypercholesterolemia due to overproduction of LDL or defective clearance of LDL particles. Segregation analysis of LDL subclasses in these two types of families was performed to search for a single major genetic locus and to simultaneously test for the influence of polygenes and environmental effects. The relationships between the LDL subclass phenotype characterized by a predominance of small, dense LDL and overproduction of apoprotein B and LDL clearance defects were investigated in family members. A determination was made as to whether an age-of-onset effect existed for the expression of LDL subclass phenotypes. Genetic-environmental interactions were also studied.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 100 Years   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
No eligibility criteria
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00005203

Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Washington
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
OverallOfficial: Melissa Austin University of Washington
  More Information

Austin MA. Genetic epidemiology of low-density lipoprotein subclass phenotypes. Ann Med. 1992 Dec;24(6):477-81. Review.
Austin MA, Horowitz H, Wijsman E, Krauss RM, Brunzell J. Bimodality of plasma apolipoprotein B levels in familial combined hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis. 1992 Jan;92(1):67-77.
Austin MA. Low-density lipoprotein subclass phenotypes and familial combined hyperlipidemia. Diabetes Metab Rev. 1991 Sep;7(3):173-7. Review.
Austin MA, Wijsman E, Guo SW, Krauss RM, Brunzell JD, Deeb S. Lack of evidence for linkage between low-density lipoprotein subclass phenotypes and the apolipoprotein B locus in familial combined hyperlipidemia. Genet Epidemiol. 1991;8(5):287-97.
LaBelle M, Austin MA, Rubin E, Krauss RM. Linkage analysis of low-density lipoprotein subclass phenotypes and the apolipoprotein B gene. Genet Epidemiol. 1991;8(4):269-75.
Austin MA. Plasma triglyceride and coronary heart disease. Arterioscler Thromb. 1991 Jan-Feb;11(1):2-14. Review.
Brunzell JD, Austin MA. Individuality, hyperlipidemia, and premature coronary artery disease. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1990;63:72-83. Review.
Austin MA, King MC, Vranizan KM, Krauss RM. Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. A proposed genetic marker for coronary heart disease risk. Circulation. 1990 Aug;82(2):495-506.
Austin MA, Brunzell JD, Fitch WL, Krauss RM. Inheritance of low density lipoprotein subclass patterns in familial combined hyperlipidemia. Arteriosclerosis. 1990 Jul-Aug;10(4):520-30.
Austin MA, Sandholzer C, Selby JV, Newman B, Krauss RM, Utermann G. Lipoprotein(a) in women twins: heritability and relationship to apolipoprotein(a) phenotypes. Am J Hum Genet. 1992 Oct;51(4):829-40.
Selby JV, Austin MA, Sandholzer C, Quesenberry CP Jr, Zhang D, Mayer E, Utermann G. Environmental and behavioral influences on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentration in women twins. Prev Med. 1994 May;23(3):345-53.
Austin MA, Jarvik GP, Hokanson JE, Edwards K. Complex segregation analysis of LDL peak particle diameter. Genet Epidemiol. 1993;10(6):599-604.
Cheung MC, Austin MA, Moulin P, Wolf AC, Cryer D, Knopp RH. Effects of pravastatin on apolipoprotein-specific high density lipoprotein subpopulations and low density lipoprotein subclass phenotypes in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis. 1993 Aug;102(1):107-19.
Selby JV, Austin MA, Newman B, Zhang D, Quesenberry CP Jr, Mayer EJ, Krauss RM. LDL subclass phenotypes and the insulin resistance syndrome in women. Circulation. 1993 Aug;88(2):381-7.
Austin MA, Newman B, Selby JV, Edwards K, Mayer EJ, Krauss RM. Genetics of LDL subclass phenotypes in women twins. Concordance, heritability, and commingling analysis. Arterioscler Thromb. 1993 May;13(5):687-95.
Zambon A, Austin MA, Brown BG, Hokanson JE, Brunzell JD. Effect of hepatic lipase on LDL in normal men and those with coronary artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb. 1993 Feb;13(2):147-53.
Austin MA, Breslow JL, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Willett WC, Krauss RM. Low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns and risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA. 1988 Oct 7;260(13):1917-21.
Austin MA, King MC, Vranizan KM, Newman B, Krauss RM. Inheritance of low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns: results of complex segregation analysis. Am J Hum Genet. 1988 Dec;43(6):838-46.
Austin MA. Plasma triglyceride as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The epidemiologic evidence and beyond. Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Feb;129(2):249-59. Review.
Jarvik GP, Brunzell JD, Austin MA, Krauss RM, Motulsky AG, Wijsman E. Genetic predictors of FCHL in four large pedigrees. Influence of ApoB level major locus predicted genotype and LDL subclass phenotype. Arterioscler Thromb. 1994 Nov;14(11):1687-94.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00005203     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 1082
R29HL038760 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Submitted: May 25, 2000
First Posted: May 26, 2000
Last Update Posted: February 10, 2016
Last Verified: August 2004

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Cardiovascular Diseases
Heart Diseases
Lipid Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases

To Top