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Randomized Trial of Aspirin and Cataracts in U.S. Physicians

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00000157
Recruitment Status : Terminated
First Posted : September 24, 1999
Last Update Posted : September 17, 2009
Information provided by:
National Eye Institute (NEI)

Brief Summary:

To determine whether 325 mg of aspirin taken on -alternate days reduces the risk of developing cataract among male U.S. physicians who were aged 40 to 84 in 1982.

To identify potential risk factors for cataract development, such as age, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, height, diabetes, medication use, and history of previous eye trauma or surgery.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Cataract Drug: Aspirin Phase 3

Detailed Description:

Cataract is one of the most common causes of impaired vision as well as the third leading cause of blindness in the United States. Cataract surgery is one of the safest and most successful of all operations. The National Eye Institute has estimated that if the progression of cataract could be slowed enough to delay the need for surgery by even 10 years, the current annual number could be reduced by 45 percent.

Little is known about the relative importance of various potential risk factors in the development of cataract. Most current information on risk factors has come from anecdotal reports or from relatively small case-control studies. One major project, the Framingham Eye Study, has identified several factors that were significantly associated with subsequent cataract formation, including diabetes and dietary factors. Diabetes has long been thought to increase the risk of developing cataract.

Recently, aspirin has been proposed as a drug that can prevent cataract formation or slow its progression. Aspirin may affect tryptophan levels in patients with cataract, or it may inhibit aldose reductase, an enzyme associated with the development of diabetic cataract. Thus, data from this study sought to determine whether one 325-mg aspirin tablet, taken on alternate days, protects against cataract formation. The data also sought to reveal other additional cataract risk factors that emerge after simultaneous controlling for other variables.

The other primary objective of this trial was to assess the antioxidant effects of beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) on cataract development. In addition, factors that have been suggested to be cataractogenic were assessed in prospective cohort studies. These factors included age, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, height, diabetes, medication use, cigarette smoking, and history of previous eye trauma or surgery. In addition, the possible associations between history of vitamin E and selenium intake and cataract were explored.

This trial was part of the Physicians Health Study, an ongoing, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of aspirin in the prevention of cardiovascular mortality and of beta-carotene in the prevention of cancer. Following randomization, each of the 22,071 physicians enrolled was assigned to one of four groups to take either aspirin or its placebo and beta-carotene or its placebo. Follow-up questionnaires were sent 6 and 12 months after randomization and every 12 months thereafter. The randomized aspirin component of the trial was terminated early (January 1988), after an average followup of approximately 5 years, because of a statistically extreme 44 percent reduced risk of a first myocardial infarction in the aspirin group.

Since this study is conducted by mail among physicians nationwide, examinations cannot be performed on all patients to determine when they have reached an end point. Reported diagnoses of cataract are confirmed by medical record review. The primary analysis will be of incidence of cataract in the aspirin and placebo groups. In addition, the Cox proportional hazards model will be used to determine whether there is a difference in time to cataract diagnosis between the two groups. It has been postulated that the potent antioxidant properties of beta-carotene might make it effective in preventing cataract development. The investigators will thus determine whether there is a difference in the numbers of cataracts between the beta-carotene/placebo groups and the aspirin/placebo groups.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Allocation: Randomized
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Study Start Date : April 1982
Actual Study Completion Date : January 1988

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Cataract
Drug Information available for: Aspirin

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   40 Years to 84 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
The study population consisted of 22,071 male U.S. physicians, aged 40 to 84 years in 1982, with no history of myocardial infarction, cancer, kidney disease, renal disease, or any other contraindication to the use of aspirin or beta-carotene, including regular use of corticosteroids.

Layout table for additonal information Identifier: NCT00000157    
Other Study ID Numbers: NEI-59
First Posted: September 24, 1999    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: September 17, 2009
Last Verified: September 2009
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Lens Diseases
Eye Diseases
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Antirheumatic Agents
Fibrinolytic Agents
Fibrin Modulating Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors