Non‐Communicable Diseases and Antiretroviral Therapy Outcomes in the RapIT Study Population (RapIT-NCD)
For national antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs, the most important health system goals in reducing morbidity and mortality among HIV-infection patients are to initiate treatment as early as eligibility criteria allow and to achieve the highest possible long-term retention of patients on ART. In South Africa, cohort data have consistently found high attrition among ART patients, with the combined cumulative outcomes of death and loss to follow up averaging 25-40% over the first five years after ART initiation. Like many other middle income countries, South Africa also faces very high rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and NCD risks. Despite this, there are virtually no studies looking at interactions between ART and NCDs, and none that have considered the effect of NCDs and NCD risk factors on achieving the second health system goal mentioned above: long term retention on ART.
The main RapIT study focuses on rapid initiation of ART, with short-term (6-month) attrition from treatment and viral suppression as the primary outcomes. In this supplemental study, we will evaluate the role of NCDs and NCD risk factors on long-term retention on ART, with outcomes including mortality, loss to follow up, viral suppression and immunologic improvement, and physical functioning, ability to perform normal daily activities, and economic productivity among patients already on ART. The study will enroll up to 400 adult patients already on ART for ≥ 12 months at the RapIT study site. At enrollment, consented subjects will be screened for elevated levels of several NCD risk factors including body mass index; glucose using HbA1c levels; blood pressure and cholesterol; as well as signs of abnormalities in hepatic, renal, and lung function. A medical history will be taken, and a questionnaire will gather information about chronic pain, alcohol use, smoking, physical functioning, ability to perform normal daily activities, and economic productivity. Referral for further NCD diagnosis and care will be offered as needed. Existing electronic medical records will be accessed to obtain retrospective data since ART initiation and to follow subjects prospectively for up to 24 months after the enrollment screening is completed. Six months after enrollment, subjects with NCDs or at high risk of NCDs will be re-screened at a routine ART medication pickup visit to assess uptake of referral and whether risks, conditions, or outcomes have changed. The study will help identify reasons for poor outcomes on ART and point to interventions that will help achieve the overall goals of the national ART program.
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Behavioral: Referral for NCD care
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
|Official Title:||Non‐Communicable Diseases and Antiretroviral Therapy Outcomes in the RapIT Study Population|
- NCDs and NCD risk factors in the study population by time on ART [ Time Frame: Baseline ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The outcomes for primary objective 1 will be NCDs and NCD risk factors in the study population by time on ART, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory conditions, hypertension, obesity, and behavioral risks such as smoking and alcohol use.
- HIV treatment outcomes [ Time Frame: Baseline ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The outcomes for primary objective 2 will be HIV treatment outcomes, including all-cause mortality, loss to follow up (defined as having missed a scheduled medical or ART pick up visit by >90 days), attrition from ART care (defined as mortality or loss to follow up), viral suppression (defined as <400 copies/ml), physical functioning (as assessed by questionnaire) and economic productivity (also as assessed by questionnaire).
- Uptake of NCD care [ Time Frame: 6 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Uptake of non-communicable disease (NCD) care, defined as a patient newly diagnosed with an NCD or serious risk factor and referred for care who enroll for care at the study site or another clinic
- Changes in NCD risks or prevalence [ Time Frame: 6 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Changes in tests results or self-reported risks post-referral for those obtaining NCD care, defined by screening test results or questionnaire responses six months after referral to care
|Study Start Date:||January 2014|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||May 2015|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||December 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Study subjects with NCD risks or disease at enrollment.
Behavioral: Referral for NCD care
Subjects in the NCD Risks group not already receiving care for the condition will be referred to a primary health clinic for care.
No NCD Risks
Study subjects without NCD risks or disease at enrollment.
|Contact: Mhairi Maskew, MBBCH||+27 82 330 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Thuthukani Health Centre||Not yet recruiting|
|Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa|