Availability of Lipids in Almonds in Healthy Individuals
Evidence indicates that almond consumption is associated with multiple health benefits. However, nuts are commonly excluded from diets on the basis that their high energy content may induce weight gain. Evidence from numerous studies show that this is not the case, yet the mechanism responsible for the less than predicted effect on weight is unknown. This study aimed to examine the effects of increased mastication on lipid bioavailability and satiety related peptide released in humans. Its purpose is to provide valuable mechanistic data to support the results from previous completed clinical studies.
Behavioral: 10 chews
Behavioral: 25 Chews
Behavioral: 40 Chews
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Case-Crossover
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
|Official Title:||Mastication of Almonds: Effects of Lipid Bioaccessibility, Appetite, and Hormone Response|
- Lipid available for absorption as measured by stool collections, appetite measures, blood analysis [ Time Frame: 3, 4 day periods ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- Particle size distribution as measured by mechanical sieving process [ Time Frame: 3 separate sessions ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Biospecimen Retention: Samples With DNA
|Study Start Date:||April 2006|
|Study Completion Date:||August 2007|
|Primary Completion Date:||August 2007 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Participants completed all 3-arms of this cross-over design study.
Behavioral: 10 chews
Participants were required to chew 55g grams of almonds per day for four days in 11, 5 gram portions. Almonds were to be chewed 10 times before swallowing.
Other Name: AlmondsBehavioral: 25 Chews
Participants were required to chew 55g grams of almonds per day for four days in 11, 5 gram portions. Almonds were to be chewed 25 times before swallowing.
Other Name: AlmondsBehavioral: 40 Chews
Participants were required to chew 55g grams of almonds per day for four days in 11, 5 gram portions. Almonds were to be chewed 40 times before swallowing.
Other Name: Almonds
This cross-over study consisted of three study periods of four consecutive days separated by at least one week. During each day of the three study periods, participants were required to consume 55g of almonds split up into 5 g portions. They were required to chew the almonds 10, 25, or 40 times before swallowing, depending on the treatment. During each treatment period, all participants followed the same procedures over the four days. On day one after an overnight fast, participants reported to the laboratory and were presented with 11, 5 gram portions of almonds to chew 10, 25, or 40 times, depending on treatment arm. The participant remained in the laboratory for 4 hours post-almond consumption for measurements of blood and appetite. For the remainder of the 4 days, participants consumed all meals in the laboratory and collected all stools passed. On a separate occasion, recovered particle sizes of masticated almonds were measured by a mechanical sieving process. Individuals chewed almond samples either 10, 25 or 40 times and expectorated them into sieves.
|United States, Indiana|
|Purdue University, Laboratory forSensory and Ingestive Studies|
|West Lafayette, Indiana, United States, 47907|
|Principal Investigator:||Richard D Mattes, MPH, PhD, RD||Purdue University|
|Study Director:||Bridget A Cassady, B.S.||Purdue University|