Primary Outcome Measures:
- Relationship between smoking and other factors including: bipolar subtype, current and past clinical status, illness severity,history of a suicide attempts, age of bipolar onset, gender, education, social class, economic status. [ Time Frame: One interview session ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
An association exists between smoking and schizophrenia, independent of other factors and related to psychotic symptomatology. Only a few small descriptive studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among bipolar patients with conflicting results. Patients who smoke score higher on rating scales for psychotic symptoms than their non-smoking peers. While the association of smoking with psychotic symptomatology in schizophrenia is established, such association according to bipolar affective disorder has been reported in a few studies and remains unclear. Also a few studies reported about association of smoking with depressive and manic symptoms, and with suicidal behavior in bipolar patients. Thus further investigation of these issues is warranted.