Safety and Efficacy Study of Switching From Epzicom to Truvada (SWIFT)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Gilead Sciences
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00724711
First received: July 25, 2008
Last updated: May 22, 2012
Last verified: May 2012
  Purpose

This protocol describes a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of switching from fixed dose abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC) to fixed dose emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in virologically suppressed, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected subjects maintained on a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r)-containing antiretroviral (ARV) regimen. Duration of treatment is 48 weeks.


Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infection
Drug: emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)
Drug: abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC)
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Prospective, Randomized, Open Label Phase IV Study to Evaluate the Rationale of Switching From Fixed Dose Abacavir (ABC)/Lamivudine (3TC) to Fixed Dose Tenofovir DF (TDF)/Emtricitabine (FTC) in Virologically Suppressed, HIV-1 Infected Patients Maintained on a Ritonavir Boosted Protease Inhibitor Containing Antiretroviral Regimen

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Gilead Sciences:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Percentage of Participants With HIV-1 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) < 200 Copies/mL Through Week 48 Based on Time to Loss of Virologic Response (TLOVR) Algorithm [ Time Frame: Baseline to 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The percentage of participants with HIV-1 RNA < 200 copies/mL based on TLOVR algorithm at Week 48 was summarized. Participants were considered nonresponders in the TLOVR analysis if they experienced virologic rebound prior to or at Week 48, discontinued study before Week 48, or added a new antiretroviral (ARV) agent prior to completion of the study. Virologic rebound was defined as 2 consecutive HIV-1 RNA values >= 200 copies/mL or the last HIV-1 RNA value >= 200 copies/mL followed by discontinuation from the study.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Percentage of Participants With Pure Virologic Response (PVR) for HIV-1 RNA Cutoff at 200 Copies/mL Through Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline to 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The percentage of participants with PVR for HIV-1 RNA cutoff at 200 copies/mL at Week 48 was summarized. Pure virologic response was the percentage of subjects who did not have a virologic rebound. Virologic rebound was defined as two consecutive HIV-1 RNA values >= 200 copies/mL or the last HIV-1 RNA value >= 200 copies/mL followed by discontinuation from the study.

  • Percentage of Participants With Pure Virologic Response (PVR) for HIV-1 RNA Cutoff at 50 Copies/mL Through Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline to 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The percentage of participants with PVR for HIV-1 RNA cutoff at 50 copies/mL at Week 48 was summarized. Pure virologic response was the proportion of participants who did not have a virologic rebound. Virologic rebound was defined as two consecutive HIV-1 RNA values >= 50 copies/mL or the last HIV-1 RNA value >= 50 copies/mL followed by discontinuation from the study.

  • Percentage of Participants With HIV-1 RNA < 200 Copies/mL at Week 48 [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The percentage of participants with HIV-1 RNA < 200 copies/mL at Week 48 was summarized.

  • Percentage of Participants With HIV-1 RNA < 50 Copies/mL at Week 48 [ Time Frame: 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The percentage of participants with HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL at Week 48 was summarized.

  • Change From Baseline in Cluster Determinant 4 (CD4) Cell Count at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline to 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change = Week 48 value minus baseline value

  • Change From Baseline Calculated Creatinine Clearance (CLcr) Using Ideal Body Weight by Cockcroft-Gault Method at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline to 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change = Week 48 value minus baseline value

  • Change From Baseline Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) by Modified Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline to 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change = Week 48 value minus baseline value

  • Change From Baseline Fasting Glucose at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline to 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change = Week 48 value minus baseline value

  • Change From Baseline Fasting Lipid Parameters at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline to 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change = Week 48 value minus baseline value

  • Change From Baseline Ratio of Fasting Total Cholesterol Over High-density Lipoprotein (HDL) Cholesterol at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline to 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change = Week 48 value minus baseline value

  • Change From Baseline C-Reactive Protein at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline to 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change = Week 48 value minus baseline value

  • Change From Baseline Fibrinogen at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline to 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change = Week 48 value minus baseline value

  • Change From Baseline Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline to 48 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change = Week 48 value minus baseline value


Enrollment: 312
Study Start Date: July 2008
Study Completion Date: April 2011
Primary Completion Date: March 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: FTC/TDF (Truvada [TVD]) + PI/r
Participants in this group received fixed-dose combination FTC 200 mg/TDF 300 mg (Truvada [TVD]) for 48 weeks. The prestudy ritonavir-boosted PI was continued unmodified through the 48 weeks of the study.
Drug: emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)
FTC 200 mg/TDF 300 mg tablet, once a day
Other Name: Truvada
Active Comparator: ABC/3TC + PI/r
Participants in this group continued their prestudy therapy - ABC 600 mg/3TC 300 mg administered as one tablet orally once daily (Epzicom) plus ritonavir-boosted PI regimen, given orally for 48 weeks.
Drug: abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC)
ABC 600 mg/3TC 300 mg tablet, once a day
Other Name: Epzicom, Kivexa

Detailed Description:

This protocol describes a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of switching from fixed dose ABC/3TC to fixed dose FTC/TDF in virologically suppressed, HIV-1 infected subjects maintained on a PI/r-containing ARV regimen.

Subjects were stratified based on the PI/r (ie, lopinavir/ritonavir [LPV/r] versus other boosted PIs) in their regimen, and the presence versus absence of comorbidities at screening (diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, history of myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, or arrhythmias). Subjects were randomized 1:1 to switch to FTC/TDF+PI/r or to continue on their existing regimen.

Subjects received study treatment for 48 weeks.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Adult (greater than or equal to 18 years) males or non-pregnant, non-lactating females
  • HIV-1 infected subjects currently receiving a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor and fixed-dose ABC/3TC regimen continuously for greater than or equal to 3 months
  • HIV infection as documented by a validated HIV antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by one of the following:

    • Immunoblot detection of HIV antibody
    • Positive HIV-1 blood culture
    • Positive HIV-1 serum P24 antigen
    • HIV-1 plasma viremia greater than 1000 copies/mL by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or branched-chain deoxyribonucleic acid (bDNA) method
    • Detection of proviral DNA by PCR

(If confirmation of HIV infection is not available then repeat testing of HIV antibody will be required)

  • Two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration less than 200 copies/mL. The two HIV-1 RNA determinations ensure that the subject has been virologically-suppressed for at least 3 months prior to study entry:

    • The subject must have a plasma HIV-1 RNA level less than 200 copies/mL using the AmpliPrep/Taqman HIV-1 Test or Roche Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Test Version 1.5 Ultrasensitive method at least 3 months prior to the screening visit, as the "qualifying HIV-1 RNA."
    • HIV-1 RNA less than 200 copies/mL measured by bDNA (Chiron 3.0) may be used as a qualifying HIV-1 RNA for entry to the study but not for the confirmatory HIV-1 RNA.
    • The subject must have a confirmed second plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 200 copies/mL at screening, as the "confirmatory HIV-1 RNA."
    • The subject must not have a plasma HIV-1 RNA greater than or equal to 200 copies/mL between the qualifying and confirmatory HIV-1 RNA measurements.
  • Subjects receiving lipid-lowering agents (LLA) will be allowed; however, LLAs must be stable for greater than or equal to 3 months prior to study entry.
  • Adequate renal function defined as a calculated CLcr greater than or equal to 50 mL/min according to the Cockcroft-Gault formula
  • Negative serum pregnancy test (females of childbearing potential only)
  • Hepatic transaminases alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) less than or equal to 5 X upper limit of normal
  • Males and females (of childbearing potential, ie, a non-menopausal female or a female with menopause < 2 years, and who has not had a hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, or medically documented ovarian failure; this definition includes a young woman who has not yet started menstruating), and must agree to avoid pregnancy by sexual abstinence, or utilization of a highly effective method of birth control throughout the study period and for 30 days following discontinuation of study drug
  • The ability to understand and sign a written informed consent form, which must be obtained prior to initiation of any study procedures

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Subjects receiving ABC/3TC and a PI without ritonavir
  • Subjects receiving other ARV agents (eg, 2 protease inhibitors boosted with low-dose ritonavir (ie, "double-boosted PI regimens"), nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTIs], integrase inhibitors, TDF, or other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NRTIs]) in addition to ABC/3TC and a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor
  • Have known resistance to any of the study agents at any time in the past including NRTI resistance mutations (including but not limited to K65R, L74V/I, M184V/I, or thymidine analog mutations) and/or PI resistance mutations
  • A new acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining condition diagnosed (with the exception of CD4 criteria) within 30 days of baseline
  • Previous therapy with agents with systemic myelosuppressive, pancreatoxic, hepatotoxic or cytotoxic potential within 3 months of study start or the expected need for such therapy at the time of enrollment
  • Proven or suspected acute hepatitis in the 30 days prior to study entry
  • Anticipated need to initiate drugs during the study that are contraindicated with protease inhibitors (except upon approval by Gilead)
  • Receiving ongoing therapy with any of the following (administration of any of the following medications must be discontinued at least 30 days prior to the Baseline visit and for the duration of the study period):

    • Nephrotoxic agents (aminoglycoside antibiotics, amphotericin B, cidofovir, cisplatin, foscarnet, intravenous pentamidine, other agents with significant nephrotoxic potential)
    • Adefovir dipivoxil
    • Probenecid
    • Systemic chemotherapeutic agents (ie, cancer treatment medications)
    • Systemic corticosteroids
    • Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
    • Investigational agents (except upon approval by Gilead)
  • Pregnant or lactating subjects
  • Evidence of a gastrointestinal malabsorption syndrome or chronic nausea or vomiting which may confer an inability to receive an orally administered medication
  • Current alcohol or substance abuse judged by the investigator to potentially interfere with subject adherence
  • Malignancy other than cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) or basal cell carcinoma. Subjects with biopsy-confirmed cutaneous KS are eligible, but must not have received any systemic therapy for KS within 30 days of baseline and are not anticipated to require systemic therapy during the study.
  • Active, serious infections (other than HIV-1 infection) requiring parenteral antimicrobial therapy within 15 days prior to screening
  • Prior history of significant renal or bone disease
  • Any other clinical condition or prior therapy that, in the opinion of the investigator, would make the subject unsuitable for the study or unable to comply with the dosing requirements
  • Known hypersensitivity to the study drugs, the metabolites or formulation excipients
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00724711

  Show 80 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Gilead Sciences
Investigators
Study Director: Todd Fralich, MD Gilead Sciences
  More Information

Additional Information:
No publications provided by Gilead Sciences

Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Gilead Sciences
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00724711     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: GS-US-164-0216
Study First Received: July 25, 2008
Results First Received: March 28, 2012
Last Updated: May 22, 2012
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by Gilead Sciences:
HIV
HIV 1

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Slow Virus Diseases
Protease Inhibitors
Lamivudine
Tenofovir
Tenofovir disoproxil
Abacavir
Emtricitabine
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Pharmacologic Actions
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Anti-HIV Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 09, 2014