Oral Paricalcitol in Kidney Transplant Recipients

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Abbott
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Hatem Amer, Mayo Clinic
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00587158
First received: December 21, 2007
Last updated: May 9, 2013
Last verified: May 2013
  Purpose

This study is being done to find out whether patients who receive a kidney transplant can benefit from taking the medication paricalcitol (trade name Zemplar®) as compared to kidney transplant recipients not taking this medication. The main possible benefits being studied are:

  • Lower risk for overactive parathyroid glands after kidney transplantation.
  • Lower risk of low bone density in the spine and hip after kidney transplantation. By dividing patients in the study into a group receiving Zemplar® and a group not receiving Zemplar®, it will be possible to understand the good and bad effects of Zemplar® during the first year after a kidney transplant.

Condition Intervention
Transplant; Failure, Kidney
Renal Disease, End Stage
Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary
Drug: Paricalcitol
Other: Corticosteroid Avoidance Immune Suppression Protocol

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Oral Paricalcitol in Kidney Transplant Recipients Receiving a Corticosteroid-free Immunosuppressive Regimen

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Mayo Clinic:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Number of Subjects With Hyperparathyroidism at One Year [ Time Frame: 1 year post kidney transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a measure of how well the parathyroid gland is working and is measured by a blood test. Hyperparathyroidism (increased PTH) is defined as PTH blood value greater than 65 picograms/milliliter in the absence of hypocalcemia (low calcium) or if the subject had a parathyroidectomy (surgical removal of parathyroid glands) during the first year post-transplant.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Number of Subjects With Osteopenia/Osteoporosis of the Hip at One Year [ Time Frame: 1 year post kidney transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Osteopenia/Osteoporosis are conditions where bone mineral density is lower than normal, reported by T-scores, measurements of the hip made using an Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. The T-score is measured and compared to a normal healthy adult. A normal bone density results in a T-score between +1.0 and -1.0. A T-score of less than or equal to -1.5 was used for this study to define the presence of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Each participant will be categorized as having or not having osteopenia/osteoporosis of the hip at the end of the first post-transplant year based on bone mineral density results.

  • Number of Subjects With Osteopenia/Osteoporosis of the Lumbar Spine at One Year [ Time Frame: 1 year post kidney transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Osteopenia/Osteoporosis are conditions where bone mineral density is lower than normal, reported by T-scores, measurements of the lower spine made using an Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. The T-score is measured and compared to a normal healthy adult. A normal bone density results in a T-score between +1.0 and -1.0. A T-score of less than or equal to -1.5 was used for this study to define the presence of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Each participant will be categorized as having or not having osteopenia/osteoporosis of the lumbar spine at the end of the first post-transplant year based on bone mineral density results.

  • Serum Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Level Over Time [ Time Frame: Baseline, 3 weeks, 3 months, 1 year post kidney transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a hormone synthesized in the body's parathyroid glands that controls bone health. PTH controls calcium and phosphorus levels in the body. It is measured in the serum and reported in picograms per milliliter (pg/mL).

  • Serum Bone Alkaline Phosphatase (BAP) Level Over Time [ Time Frame: Baseline, 21 days, 90 days and 1 year post kidney transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    BAP is a marker of bone turn-over, is measured in the serum and reported in micrograms per liter (mcg/L).

  • Change in Lumbar Spine Bone Mineral Density (BMD) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 1 year post kidney transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    BMD was measured using a Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan and reported by T-scores, measurements of the lower spine made using the scan. The T-score reflects how your bone density measurement compares to normal healthy adults. A normal bone density results in a T-score between +1.0 and -1.0. A T-score of less than or equal to -1.5 was used for this study to define the presence of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Osteopenia is a condition of decreased bone mass or density but not thin enough to be diagnosed as osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a condition where bone mass/density has diminished to a level causing higher risk of fracture. The average change in T-score from baseline to one year is reported.

  • Change in Hip Bone Mineral Density (BMD) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 1 year post kidney transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    BMD was measured using a Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) scan and reported by T-scores, measurements made of the hip bones using the scan. The T-score reflects how your bone density measurement compares to normal healthy adults. A normal bone density results in a T-score between +1.0 and -1.0. A T-score of less than or equal to -1.5 was used for this study to define the presence of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Osteopenia is a condition of decreased bone mass or density but not thin enough to be diagnosed as osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a condition where bone mass/density has diminished to a level causing higher risk of fracture. The average change in T-score from baseline to one year is reported.

  • Number of Subjects Who Died or Lost Their Renal Graft During First Year [ Time Frame: Baseline to 1 year post kidney transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The number of subject who died (or experienced failure of their kidney surgical graft) during the first year following kidney transplant are reported here.

  • Episodes of Acute Cellular Rejection (ACR) of the Renal Transplant [ Time Frame: Baseline to 1 year post kidney transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The number of episodes of ACR, as proven by renal biopsy, were recorded.

  • Mean Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) at One Year [ Time Frame: 1 year post kidney transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Glomerular filtration rate describes the amount that fluid is filtered through the kidney and can be estimated by using serum creatinine. eGFR is reported in milliliters per minute per 1.73 m^2 of body-surface area.

  • Mean Change in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) Between 3 Weeks and 1 Year Post Transplant [ Time Frame: 3 weeks, 1 year post kidney transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • 24-hour Total Protein in the Urine at 1 Year Post Transplant [ Time Frame: 1 year post kidney transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    A urine total protein test is conducted to detect excess protein in the urine. This test helps determine an individual's kidney functioning. Protein is not usually present in urine; therefore, presence of protein in the urine is a sign of abnormality. The quantity of protein in a sample of urine collected over 24-hour was measured and reported in milligrams per day.

  • Degree of Interstitial Fibrosis on Graft Biopsy at One Year [ Time Frame: 1 year post kidney transplant ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Interstitial fibrosis refers to degree of scarring or fibrous tissue formed in the kidney. Renal pathologists reviewed biopsies of the subject's kidney grafts for fibrosis, with results expressed using the Banff schema; Quantitative criteria: ci0 = fibrosis observed in up to 5% of cortical area, ci1 = fibrosis in 6%-25% of cortical area (mild) , ci2 = fibrosis in 26%-50% of cortical area (moderate), ci3 = fibrosis in greater than 50% of cortical area (severe). The degree of interstital fibrosis for this study was defined and reported as follows: a Banff ci score of greater than 0 and less than 2 considered "mild" fibrosis and a ci score greater than or equal to 2 as "moderate to severe" fibrosis.


Enrollment: 100
Study Start Date: January 2007
Study Completion Date: November 2011
Primary Completion Date: November 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Immunosuppression without paricalcitol (control)
Subjects will receive the standard immunosuppressive therapies consisting of induction therapy with Alemtuzumab (Campath®) and Methylprednisolone (Solumedrol®), then maintained with corticosteroid avoidance using Mycophenolate Mofetil (Cellcept®) and Tacrolimus (Prograf®).
Other: Corticosteroid Avoidance Immune Suppression Protocol
Induction with Alemtuzumab and maintenance with Tacrolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil. With standard antimicrobial prophylaxis and calcium supplementation.
Other Name: Standard Immune Suppression
Active Comparator: Immunosuppression with paricalcitol
Subjects will receive the standard immunosuppressive therapy consisting of induction therapy with Alemtuzumab (Campath®) and Methylprednisolone (Solumedrol®), then maintained with corticosteroid avoidance using Mycophenolate Mofetil (Cellcept®) and Tacrolimus (Prograf®). In addition, subjects will receive the study medication paricalcitol (Zemplar®).
Drug: Paricalcitol
Zemplar® - this medicine, which is the medicine being studied, will be given as a capsule containing 1 microgram of Zemplar® once daily beginning the day after the transplant. It will be continued at the same dose for the first two weeks then, depending on the results of blood and urine testing, will be increased to 2 micrograms daily. The dose will remain at 2 micrograms daily until the end of the study unless there is a medical reason to reduce or stop it or unless the study is stopped early.
Other Name: Brand name is Zemplar®
Other: Corticosteroid Avoidance Immune Suppression Protocol
Induction with Alemtuzumab and maintenance with Tacrolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil. With standard antimicrobial prophylaxis and calcium supplementation.
Other Name: Standard Immune Suppression

Detailed Description:

The most significant challenge in kidney transplantation at present is that of reducing the risk of long-term complications. This includes hyperparathyroidism, a common post kidney transplant complication that contributes to loss of bone density and fracture risk and necessitates surgical intervention in approximately 5% of kidney transplant patients.

In order to take part in the study you will already have been accepted for kidney transplantation from a living donor or from a deceased donor at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. After you have agreed to take part in the study you will be put in one of two groups by chance (as in the flip of a coin):

Group 1 (Standard Treatment or "Control"): Patients in this group will receive a combination of four anti-rejection medications that have been used at Mayo Clinic Rochester for many kidney transplant patients and does not include any research study medicines. These medications will include:

  1. Alemtuzumab (Campath®) - this medicine will be given intravenously (IV) on the day of the transplant during surgery.
  2. Methylprednisolone (Solumedrol®) - this medicine, which is part of a family of medicines often referred to as corticosteroids, will be given intravenously on the day of the transplant during surgery. This will be the only planned dose of corticosteroid medicine you will receive although this medicine and a tablet form called Prednisone may be given at a later time if you have an episode of transplant rejection.
  3. Mycophenolate Mofetil (Cellcept®) - this medicine will be given by mouth twice daily beginning the evening before the transplant (for living donor transplants) or the day of the transplant (for deceased donor transplants). It will be continued for as long as you have your transplant unless there is a medical reason to stop it.
  4. Tacrolimus (Prograf®) - this medicine will be given by mouth once daily beginning on the fourth day after the transplant. It will continue for as long as you have your transplant unless there is a medical reason to stop it. The dose will be adjusted based on a blood test that will be done between twice a week and once a month for as long as you take the medicine.

Group 2 (Zemplar® + Standard Treatment): Patients in this group will receive the same combination of anti-rejection medications as the patients in Group 1 (a-d above) plus Zemplar®, which is the medicine being studied, will also be started on the day of the transplant. Zemplar® will be given as a capsule containing 1 microgram of Zemplar® once daily beginning the day after the transplant. It will be continued at the same dose for the first two weeks then, depending on the results of blood and urine testing, will be increased to 2 micrograms daily. The dose will remain at 2 micrograms daily until the end of the study unless there is a medical reason to reduce or stop it or unless the study is stopped early.

Both groups of patients will be treated by the same team of doctors, nurses and nurse coordinators that care for all kidney transplant patients at Mayo Clinic. The procedures and treatments for your transplant will be the same as those recommended at Mayo Clinic for all patients receiving a kidney transplant. These include the surgical operation to carry out the transplant; the need to take anti-rejection medicines by mouth for the rest of your life; the need to have blood and urine testing at regular intervals for the rest of your life to monitor the progress of your transplant; and the recommendation to have a biopsy of your transplant carried out on three occasion during the first two years after the transplant surgery. These procedures and their potential complications will be described to you in detail by your transplant physician, transplant surgeon, and transplant coordinator. The study will not require extra hospital or outpatient visits compared to the usual care for all kidney transplant patients at Mayo Clinic Rochester.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 18 years and older.
  • First or second deceased donor or living donor renal transplant.
  • Normocalcemia or hypocalcemia.
  • Willing to give informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Third or subsequent renal transplant.
  • Incompatible blood type or positive cross-match donor.
  • Multiple organ transplant recipients.
  • Diabetic with plans for future pancreas or islet transplant.
  • Evidence of donor-specific sensitization (positive T-cell and/or B-cell flow cytometric cross-match).
  • Documented hypercalcemia (total serum calcium 10.5 mg/dl on two separate occasions) prior to transplantation.
  • Serum 25(OH)vitamin D concentration ≤ 10 ng/ml
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00587158

Locations
United States, Arizona
Mayo Clinic
Scottsdale, Arizona, United States, 85259
United States, Minnesota
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905
Sponsors and Collaborators
Mayo Clinic
Abbott
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Hatem Amer, MD Mayo Clinic
  More Information

Additional Information:
No publications provided

Responsible Party: Hatem Amer, MD, Mayo Clinic
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00587158     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 256-06
Study First Received: December 21, 2007
Results First Received: January 24, 2013
Last Updated: May 9, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board
United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by Mayo Clinic:
Paricalcitol
Parathyroid Hormone
Bone Alkaline Phosphatase
Chronic Kidney Disease
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Vitamin D Receptor
Interstitial Fibrosis and Tubular Atrophy
Zemplar®

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Kidney Diseases
Hyperparathyroidism
Renal Insufficiency
Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary
Kidney Failure, Chronic
Urologic Diseases
Parathyroid Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Immunosuppressive Agents
Mycophenolate mofetil
Ergocalciferols
Mycophenolic Acid
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Pharmacologic Actions
Vitamins
Micronutrients
Growth Substances
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
Antineoplastic Agents
Therapeutic Uses

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on September 30, 2014