Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride in Combination With Nasal Glucocorticosteroid for Perennial Allergic and Non-allergic Rhinitis in Subjects With Persistent Nasal Congestion
Nasal glucocorticosteroids (GCS) are considered first-line therapy for both allergic and non-allergic rhinitis.1-3 Nasal congestion can persist despite maximum treatment with intranasal GCS. No other drugs are superior to intranasal GCS in relieving nasal congestion. For example, antihistamines are not effective in relieving congestion.1 Oral decongestants are somewhat beneficial in relieving nasal congestion but can elevate blood pressure, cause restlessness, and cause urinary retention. Oxymetazoline, however, is a potent decongestant and the addition of it to a nasal GCS should add a considerable decongestant benefit. It may also be beneficial in patients with persistent nighttime congestion despite maximum dosages of nasal GCS.
Oxymetazoline is currently recommended for three days use because of the proposed risk of rhinitis medicamentosa,4 which is increased nasal congestion caused by prolonged use of nasal decongestant sprays.5-8 The term RM was coined early in the twentieth century after several case reports described patients developing rebound congestion after using first generation intranasal decongestants such as privine hydrochloride and ephedrine for prolonged periods6,7. The histopathology and mechanism of RM has been based on animal models which may not be pertinent to humans.9-13 Studies using oxymetazoline, a newer intranasal decongestant, in individuals without rhinitis have shown conflicting evidence for the development of RM.14-16 For example, normal individuals without rhinitis using oxymetazoline three times daily for four weeks did not develop RM.17 Also, it is unknown the frequency of administration and dosage of oxymetazoline it takes to induce RM or whether RM is just a return to a patient's baseline nasal congestion as present before beginning oxymetazoline. It is also unknown whether RM is more likely or only occurs with older vasoconstrictors such as privine hydrochloride and ephedrine rather than oxymetazoline.
Nasal GCS reduce the amount of rebound congestion in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis who have reportedly developed RM.18 Nasal GCS decrease nasal mucosa edema, recruitment of neutrophils and mononuclear cells, cytokine production, and late-phase nasal mediators.19-21 They may offer a protective benefit from the risk of developing RM. Oxymetazoline may also decrease inferior turbinate hypertrophy thereby permitting better adsorption of the nasal GCS.
The addition of oxymetazoline to a nasal GCS for fourteen days will decrease the amount of congestion in subjects with allergic or non-allergic rhinitis with persistent congestion despite maximum recommended dosages of a nasal GCS. It is also hypothesized that nasal GCS protect against the development of RM secondary to oxymetazoline.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride in Combination With Nasal Glucocorticosteroid for Perennial Allergic and Non-allergic Rhinitis in Subjects With Persistent Nasal Congestion|
- to evaluate the effectiveness through symptom scores of the addition of oxymetazoline to nasal GCS in subjects with resistant congestion despite . [ Time Frame: 9 WEEKS ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- To evaluate the need for rescue medicine for persistent or worsening congestion.To evaluate evidence of rebound congestion in subjects treated with both nasal GCS and oxymetazoline.To evaluate improvement in the total nasal [ Time Frame: 9 WEEKS ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
|Study Start Date:||January 2005|
|Study Completion Date:||March 2010|
|Primary Completion Date:||March 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: 1
Drug: Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride
Oxymetazoline Hydrochloride TWO SPRAYS BID
Other Name: AFRIN