Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Rakai, Uganda
Circumcision in HIV unifected men may reduce the likelihood of becoming infected with HIV, reduce sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men, not engender increases in sexual risk behaviors, and be acceptable to men as a procedure for preventing HIV. The purpose of this study is to evaluate circumcision in HIV uninfected men in terms of safety and ability to prevent HIV infection.
Herpesvirus 2, Human
Genital Diseases, Male
Procedure: Adult male circumcision
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||Randomized Trial of Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention, Rakai, Uganda|
- HIV acquisition
- safety of circumcision
- Sexually transmitted infections
- sexual risk behaviors
|Study Start Date:||August 2002|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||December 2006|
South Africa has one of the most severe and fast-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Adult male circumcision may be an effective preventive measure to slow the spread of HIV and other STIs. This study will assess the efficacy of circumcision in HIV uninfected men in preventing HIV and STI acquisition.
This study will have two stages. In the first stage, 200 men will be enrolled into a study of the acceptability, feasibility, and safety of circumcision. Frequent postoperative follow-up will occur to determine rates of healing and complications. After assessment of those enrolled in Stage 1, Stage 2 enrollment will begin. Stage 2 will determine the efficacy of circumcision in preventing HIV acquisition. In both stages, HIV uninfected men will be randomly assigned to have either immediate circumcision or possible circumcision 2 years following Stage 2 study entry. The participants not receiving immediate circumcision will be offered circumcision after completion of 2 years of follow-up study, provided there is evidence of the efficacy of this procedure at that time. If efficacy is still unknown after 2 years of follow-up, participants will be given the option of circumcision at the completion of the trial.
Postoperative follow-up visits will be scheduled between 24 to 48 hours, 5 to 9 days, and 4 to 6 weeks. At each postoperative visit, participants will be questioned about symptoms suggestive of complications, and the area operated on will be inspected. Participants will be asked about resumption of sexual intercourse, and those who have resumed sexual intercourse will be asked about condom use. Study visits will be also conducted regarding risk behaviors and symptoms of STIs, and these will occur sometime between Weeks 4 to 6, and at Months 6, 12, and 24 post-enrollment. At each study visit, assessment of circumcision status and penile pathology; blood, urine, and penile swabs collection; and HIV testing will occur, and counseling and health education will be provided.
|Rakai Health Sciences Program, P.O. Box 279|
|Kalisizo Town, Rakai, Uganda|
|Principal Investigator:||Ronald H. Gray, MD||Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University|