Safety and Effectiveness of a Vaccine for Prostate Cancer That Uses Each Patients' Own Immune Cells.
The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and activity of a type of vaccine as immune therapy for prostate cancer. This vaccine will be made for each participant's own immune cells (called dendritic cells) obtained by blood donation. Dendritic cells are immune cells, whose role is to identify foreign antigens (bacteria, viruses, or tumor cells, for example) in the body and to activate other cells of the immune system to mount an attack on that foreign antigen. Each participant will be randomized into either Arm 1 (experimental treatment only) or Arm 2 (placebo first, then the experimental treatment). Participants will be given the vaccine and three boosters as an injection. After the placebo phase, each participant in Arm 2 will crossover to the treatment phase so that all participants will eventually receive the experimental treatment.
Biological: vaccine vehicle only
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Subject)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||A Phase I/II Study of Autologous Dendritic Cells Pulsed With Apoptotic Tumor Cells (DC/LNCaP) Administered Subcutaneously to Prostate Cancer Patients.|
- Adverse Event [ Time Frame: End of blinded phase (wk 9) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]Occurrence of adverse events (AE) was compared between the placebo and vaccine groups during the blinded phase (the 1st 9 weeks). At the end of this phase, all were unblinded, and those who received placebo crossed over to now receive vaccine. All serious AEs and any other AEs that occurred 5 times or more are reported. The exact binomial test was used to compare the occurrence of each AE between groups.
- Immunogenicity of the DC/LNCaP Vaccine. Pre- vs Post-vaccination Bulk T Cell Proliferation (3H Thymidine Incorporation) by Type of Antigen. The "Number" Indicated is the Median Difference of Post-Pre, of Each Antigen Group. [ Time Frame: pre- vs post-vaccination. Pre-vaccination T cells were collected at Wk 0 and post-vaccination T cells were collected at Wk 13 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The difference between post minus pre-vaccination bulk T cell proliferation was calculated for each antigen.
- Change in PSA Slope, Pre- vs Post-vaccination. [ Time Frame: pre- vs post- vaccination PSA slopes. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]To model the evolution of PSA (in log-scale) during the three study phases (pre-vaccine, vaccine, and post-vaccine phases), a mixed linear spline model was used. Two knots (one at the start of the vaccine phase and the other at the start of the post-vaccine phase) were used to directly quantify the differences in slopes between each phase. To account for the heterogeneous treatment effect and the repeated measures structure, random effects are incorporated into the model. For the general model, random effects for the intercept, slope and the first knot were considered.
|Study Start Date:||March 2002|
|Study Completion Date:||November 2008|
|Primary Completion Date:||November 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
12 patients in the placebo Arm for 8 weeks followed by DC/LNCAP, DC/LNCaP-M1 and DC/KLH immunizations over 8 weeks.
Biological: vaccine vehicle only
Subcutaneous injection of vaccine vehicle only (5% DMSO in normal saline), followed by cross-over to Arm 1 design.
12 patients, receiving DC/LNCaP, DC/LNCaP-M1 and DC/KLH immunizations over 8 weeks
Subcutaneous injection of DC/LNCaP, DC/LNCaP-M1, DC/KLH
This is a Phase I/II dendritic cell vaccine study for patients with prostate cancer. Our laboratory has demonstrated that effective tumor immunity in humans is associated with, and likely mediated at least in part by tumor antigen-specific killer T cells (Albert et al., 1998a; Darnell, 1999; Darnell and Posner, 2003). Moreover, we have demonstrated that apoptotic material derived from dying tumor cells are a potent means of delivering antigen to DCs and subsequently triggering tumor antigen-specific T cell responses ex vivo (Albert et al., 1998a; Albert et al., 1998c). In this study, patients with 3 consecutive rises in PSA measured at least 2 week apart, after definite local therapy (prostatectomy or radiation) will be recruited. Peripheral blood monocytes will be collected by leukapheresis and dendritic cells will be generated in the Cleanroom in the Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology. These dendritic cells will be pulsed with apoptotic prostate cancer cells from a cell line (LNCaP), harvested, tested for certain release criteria, and then injected as vaccine. When patients are found to be eligible for the study, they will be randomized into either the experimental group or the placebo group for the purposes of comparing adverse events between groups only. Vaccine plus 3 boosters (or placebo) will be given, each two weeks apart. After the third booster, patients will be unblinded. Those receiving the vaccine will when enter the follow up phase which includes a post treatment leukapheresis. Those in the placebo group will cross over and receive the vaccine and boosters. The primary outcomes to be evaluated are toxicity and activity. Patients will be evaluated for both local and systemic toxicity. For activity, we measure both immunological and clinical responses to the vaccine, comparing measures taken before and after vaccination, combining patients in both arms.
|United States, New York|
|Rockefeller University Hospital|
|New York, New York, United States, 10021|
|Principal Investigator:||Robert B. Darnell, MD, PHD||Rockefeller University|