Fractional Dose Tetravalent A, C, Y, W135 Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Norwegian Institute of Public Health
University of Oslo
Medecins Sans Frontieres
Information provided by:
Epicentre
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00271479
First received: December 29, 2005
Last updated: December 21, 2006
Last verified: December 2006
  Purpose

Hypothesis:

Lower doses of each A/C/Y/W135 component of the meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine could confer a similar functional immunogenic response as the dose of 50 μg currently being used, and subsequently be equally protective.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of fractional dose tetravalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine to control outbreak especially caused by N. meningitidis serogroup W135

Primary Objectives:

  • To measure the immunogenicity of a dose corresponding to one fifth of the amount of the licensed meningococcal A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide vaccine, i.e. 10 μg for each component; and
  • To measure the immunogenicity of a dose corresponding to one tenth of the licensed meningococcal A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide vaccine, i.e. 5 μg for each component.

Condition Intervention Phase
Infections, Meningococcal
Meningitis, Meningococcic
Biological: A, C, Y, W135 meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Bio-equivalence Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Assay of the Immunogenicity of Fractional Dose Tetravalent A, C, Y, W135 Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in Africa

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Epicentre:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • To measure the immunogenicity of a dose corresponding to one fifth of the amount of the licensed meningococcal A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide vaccine, i.e. 10µg for each component
  • To measure the immunogenicity of a dose corresponding to one tenth of the licensed meningococcal A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide vaccine, i.e. 5µg for each component

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • To determine the pharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis and in particular W135 strains in the study population
  • To determine the natural immunity towards N. meningitidis serogroup A, C, Y and W135 before immunisation in the study population
  • To measure a possible waning of immunity at one year and at two years after immunisation
  • To measure the immune response after challenging with a second dose of the commercialised meningococcal A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide vaccine after one year, in a group of volunteers who have received a reduced dose on day 0

Estimated Enrollment: 720
Study Start Date: June 2004
Estimated Study Completion Date: November 2006
Detailed Description:

In 2002, an epidemic of meningococcal disease started in Burkina Faso and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W135 was identified as the causative organism. This event followed the outbreaks of 2000 and 2001 in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, and was the first large epidemic caused by serogroup W135. Mass vaccination of the population with the only vaccine protecting against W135, i.e. the tetravalent A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide vaccine (TPSV), was not possible because of the global shortage in supply, in addition to its cost. In 2003, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) produced a trivalent polysaccharide vaccine A/C/W135 for US$ 1.5. This vaccine was used in Burkina Faso in the new epidemic faced by this country in 2003. However, availability and affordability of the tetravalent A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide vaccine and of the trivalent A/C/W135 polysaccharide vaccine are still under discussion between the WHO and the producers. The risk of further epidemics due to the W135 strain in other African countries is of high concern for the scientific community.

The current dose of the licensed tetravalent A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide vaccine contains 50 μg of each polysaccharide component. During the 1980’s, researchers from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) did extensive works on the immunogenicity of meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines in adults. A first study performed by Griffiss et al. demonstrated that doses of 5 μg of group Y and group W135 polysaccharides were as effective as doses of 50 μg in inducing production of bactericidal antibody amounts correlating with functional immunity (Griffiss et al. Mil Med 1985; 150: 529-33). A second study concluded that doses of 7.5 μg (Y and W) and 15 μg (A and C) were sufficient to induce equivalent binding and bactericidal antibody responses as 50 μg (Griffiss et al. Infect Immun 1982; 37: 205-8). In a more recent study from Granoff et al., 1/50 (1 mcg) of the ordinary dose of tetravalent A/C/Y/W135 vaccine was given (Granoff et al. J Infect Dis 1998; 178: 870-4). The antibody responses to A and C have been measured, and this low dose was sufficient to mount a C response in most of the subjects, but the dose was less effective in eliciting a response to A. The antibody responses to W135 and Y were not reported.

Hypothesis:

Lower doses of each A/C/Y/W135 component of the meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine could confer a similar functional immunogenic response as the dose of 50 μg currently being used, and subsequently be equally protective.

It would potentially bring two major benefits. Firstly, it would increase the number of tetravalent vaccine doses available on the market. Secondly, it would decrease the cost of the individual vaccine dose. As a result, more people could be vaccinated, and thereby protected against the disease, and to a lower price.

Results obtained with the study on the tetravalent A/C/Y/W135 polysaccharide vaccine would be valid for the trivalent A/C/W135 polysaccharide vaccine.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   2 Years to 20 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Volunteers should not be suffering of severe chronic disease or a known congenital or acquired immunodeficiency. A medical exam will be performed by a medical doctor before inclusion.
  • Volunteers must be living in the Mbarara district and within 15 km from the site of immunization. Volunteers should be residents of the chosen site and should express no plan of moving from this area during the study period.
  • Volunteers must be available for follow-up for the duration of the study (minimum of 24 months).

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Volunteers with severe chronic disease or with a general condition requiring hospital admission.
  • Volunteers with a known congenital or acquired immunodeficiency (e.g. HIV). Diagnosis will be presumptive based on the medical background and the clinical examination. No serological HIV testing will be performed.
  • Evidence of any concomitant infection at the time of presentation (including rashes other than scabies; ear, nose or throat infections; and abnormal respiratory system examination).
  • The patient has any other underlying diseases that compromise the diagnosis and the evaluation of the response to the study medication.
  • History of serious adverse reactions to vaccines such as anaphylaxis or related symptoms such as hives, respiratory difficulty, angioedema and abdominal pain.
  • Malnutrition: The nutritional assessment of children aged 24–59 months, a weight-for-height (W/H) index, will be calculated. This index is expressed in standard deviations of a normalised distribution of a reference population 38 (National Centre for Health Statistics, USA). Children under 5 years old with a Z-score inferior to -2 will be excluded. For children over 5 or adults, the clinical examination will be considered.
  • Pregnant women and lactating women are not eligible for this trial. All women of child-bearing age must provide a urine sample for pregnancy testing before inclusion and, for sub-group “b”, before the second vaccine injection.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00271479

Locations
Norway
Norwegian Institute of Public Health
Oslo, Norway
Uganda
Mbarara Epicentre Research Base
Mbarara, Uganda
Sponsors and Collaborators
Epicentre
Norwegian Institute of Public Health
University of Oslo
Medecins Sans Frontieres
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Philippe J Guerin, MD, MPH, PhD Epicentre
Principal Investigator: Dominique A Caugant, PhD Norwegian Institute of Public Health
  More Information

Publications:
Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00271479     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: MB-04-MEN-04
Study First Received: December 29, 2005
Last Updated: December 21, 2006
Health Authority: Uganda: National Council for Science and Technology

Keywords provided by Epicentre:
Meningitis
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
Neisseria meningitidis
Outbreaks
Vaccine
Africa
Uganda
Prevention of Neisseria meningitidis infections
In outbreak contexts in developing countries

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Infection
Meningitis
Meningococcal Infections
Meningitis, Meningococcal
Central Nervous System Infections
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Neisseriaceae Infections
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections
Meningitis, Bacterial
Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on September 22, 2014