Early vs Late Introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-infected Patients With Tuberculosis (ANRS 1295 CAMELIA)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
French National Institute for Health and Medical Research-French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (Inserm-ANRS) ( French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis )
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00226434
First received: September 23, 2005
Last updated: March 15, 2012
Last verified: March 2012
  Purpose

In Cambodia the prevalence of both tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is high. Data suggest that aggressive management of HIV infection, which includes Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) during treatment of TB, decreases both morbidity and mortality. On the other hand, the use of HAART for patients with TB may cause severe complications due to drug-drug interactions, and occasionally a temporary exacerbation of symptoms. These reactions may be particularly severe when HAART is started soon after the start of TB treatment.

The proposed study aims to determine the optimal time to initiate HAART in previously untreated HIV-infected adult patients with TB and low CD4 cell counts.


Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infection
Tuberculosis
Procedure: Early antiretroviral treatment
Procedure: Late antiretroviral treatment
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Early vs Late Introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy in Naive HIV-infected Patients With Tuberculosis in Cambodia

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by French National Institute for Health and Medical Research-French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (Inserm-ANRS):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Survival rate [ Time Frame: At the end of the study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Type, frequency and severity of Adverse Events that occur during the trial and to their potential relations with the drugs, HIV or TB infection [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Frequency of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Frequency of TB paradoxical reaction, defined as worsening or emergence of signs or symptoms of TB (e.g. fever, cough, shortness of breath, adenopathy or exacerbation of disease at other extra pulmonary sites) during appropriate TB treatment [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Occurrence of opportunistic infections [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Evaluation of TB treatment success [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Evaluation of ART treatment success [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Resistance to ARV treatment determined by genotyping HIV-1 strains among patients with detectable viral load on Day 0 and Week 50 [ Time Frame: Within 12 months of follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Patient's adherence to TB and ARV treatment evaluated based on interviews and pill counts at each study visit [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Pharmacokinetic study to assess efavirenz plasma exposure will be assayed at regular time intervals [ Time Frame: Within 12 months of follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Survival Rate [ Time Frame: 50 weeks after enrolment ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

Enrollment: 661
Study Start Date: January 2006
Study Completion Date: May 2010
Primary Completion Date: May 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: 1 Procedure: Early antiretroviral treatment
The ARV treatment is started 2 weeks after the diagnosis and the start of the anti-tuberculosis treatment
Active Comparator: 2 Procedure: Late antiretroviral treatment
The ARV treatment is started 8 weeks after the diagnosis and the start of the anti-tuberculosis treatment

Detailed Description:

In Cambodia the prevalence of both tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is high. In 2000, there were approximately 75.000 newly diagnosed TB cases. In 2003, 1.9% of the population was infected with HIV. TB rates in Cambodia are more than double those observed in other developing countries and up to 30 times higher than those currently seen in the USA or Western Europe. It is estimated that over 8% of the newly diagnosed TB cases are co-infected with HIV, of which approximately 85% are severely immunosuppressed (CD4+ cell count < 200 x 106 cells/l).

Mortality rates were found to be 2-4 folds higher in HIV/TB co-infected patients than in TB alone. Data suggest that aggressive management of HIV infection, which includes Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) during treatment of TB decreases both morbidity and mortality by suppressing viral replication and improving immune function.

On the other hand, the use of HAART for patients with TB may cause severe complications due to drug-drug interactions, and occasionally a temporary exacerbation of symptoms, signs or radiographic manifestations of TB. Such events or 'paradoxical reactions' that occur among 7 - 36% of HIV/TB co-infected patients treated with HAART may be secondary to immune restitution. These reactions may be particularly severe when HAART is started soon after the start of TB treatment.

Most clinical teams recommend delaying the initiation of HAART to avoid the early side effects of TB treatment and simplify clinical management of the co-infected patient. However others argue that early initiation of HAART in TB patients with CD4 cell counts < 100 x 106 cells/l leads to a marked reduction of viral load despite frequent adverse events.

The proposed study aims to determine the optimal time to initiate HAART (defined as d4T + 3TC + efavirenz) in previously untreated HIV-infected adult patients with TB and low CD4 cell counts. The study is a multicentre prospective, randomized, open-label two-armed trial with no placebo. It is designed as a superiority trial to compare the "early arm" (HAART initiated 2 weeks after TB treatment onset) with the "late arm" (HAART initiated 2 months after TB treatment onset). Efficacy will be assessed by the survival rate in the two arms. Secondary objectives will include evaluation of (1) the safety of an early initiation of HAART in terms of drug interactions or paradoxical reactions, (2) the occurrence of opportunistic infections diagnosed during the follow-up period, (3) patients' adherence to TB treatment and HAART, (4) the rate of hospitalization for any cause during the trial; the measure of (5) the effectiveness of the TB treatment and HAART and (6) the predictive factors for the survival, the response to anti-TB therapy and HAART and the paradoxical reactions.

The total study duration is expected to be 4 years (3 years for enrolment and at least one year of follow-up) in five study sites: (1) Khmero-Soviet Friendship Hospital, Phnom Penh; (2) Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh; (3) Provincial hospital, Svay Rieng province; and (4) Provincial hospital, Takeo province, (5) Provincial Hospital, Siem Reap.

The study will be carried out in compliance with the protocol and in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki approved by the World Health Association and with the recommendations of the Good Clinical Practice.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 18 or over
  • Positive HIV test result
  • CD4+ cell count under or equal to 200 cells per ml within 14 days prior the study entry
  • Positive AFB on any smear (sputum, lymph node drainage, stool, CSF, pleural fluid)
  • Naive to ART
  • TB treatment started less than one week prior enrolment
  • Negative gonadotrophin pregnancy test (blood) for women of childbearing potential (i.e. not surgically sterile or less than 2 years menopause)
  • Agreement from female candidates who are participating in sexual activity that could lead to pregnancy while receiving and for 6 weeks after stopping efavirenz to use two reliable methods of contraception, one of which including condom.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Suspected TB with negative AFB
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women
  • Impaired hepatic function (icterus, elevated AST or ALT at least 5 times over the normal value)
  • Unable and/or unlikely to comprehend and/or be adherent to the protocol
  • Treated for a previous suspected or documented TB other than the ongoing infection which motivates enrolment in this trial
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00226434

Locations
Cambodia
Khmero-Soviet Friendship Hospital
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Calmette Hospital
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Siem Reap Referral Hospital
Siem Reap, Cambodia
Provincial hospital
Svay Rieng, Cambodia
Provincial hospital
Takeo, Cambodia
Sponsors and Collaborators
French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis
Investigators
Principal Investigator: François-Xavier Blanc Bicêtre University Hospital, France
Principal Investigator: Thim Sok Cambodian Health Committee, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Principal Investigator: Anne Goldfeld Institute for Biomedical Research, Boston, USA
  More Information

Publications:
Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: French National Institute for Health and Medical Research-French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (Inserm-ANRS) ( French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis )
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00226434     History of Changes
Obsolete Identifiers: NCT00498823, NCT01300481
Other Study ID Numbers: ANRS 1295 CAMELIA, CIPRA KH 001
Study First Received: September 23, 2005
Last Updated: March 15, 2012
Health Authority: Cambodia: Ministry of Health

Keywords provided by French National Institute for Health and Medical Research-French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (Inserm-ANRS):
HIV infection
Tuberculosis
Paradoxical reaction
Treatment Naive

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Tuberculosis
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Slow Virus Diseases
Mycobacterium Infections
Actinomycetales Infections
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 26, 2014