Prevention of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Antagonist-induced Psychosis in Kids
Ketamine, an FDA approved anesthetic agent, is becoming the sedative/analgesic of choice for emergency sedation in children because it causes deep sedation with minimal respiratory depression in comparison to other available agents. However, emergence reactions are an important adverse effect of ketamine, characterized by transient changes in cognitive function, dissociation and mild schizophrenia-like symptoms. These cognitive and behavioral effects are dose-dependently induced by ketamine and other antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor. NMDA receptor hypofunction can disinhibit excitatory (cholinergic/glutamatergic) projections in key areas of the brain, and this has been proposed to explain key features of schizophrenia. Several treatments that block excessive excitatory transmitter release have also been shown to prevent cognitive and behavioral effects of ketamine-induced NMDA receptor hypofunction in humans. Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, which can presynaptically inhibit acetylcholine release, can prevent mild ketamine-induced behavioral and cognitive symptoms in healthy human adults. However, this prevention strategy has not been evaluated in children. Children currently receive clinically-indicated treatment with the NMDA antagonist, ketamine, and this age group is an important target for pharmacological strategies aimed at the prevention of schizophrenia. This application proposes a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to test the safety and effectiveness of dexmedetomidine, an FDA approved alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, in preventing ketamine-induced mental symptoms in children. Planned primary analyses will evaluate effects of the hypothesized prevention treatment on clinical and cognitive variables using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The proposed experiments are relevant to future prevention trials for individuals at risk for schizophrenia, and to preventing adverse effects of NMDA antagonist anesthetic agents (ketamine, nitrous oxide).
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Subject)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Prevention of NMDA Antagonist-induced Psychosis and Memory Impairment in Children|
- Brief Psychiatric Ratings Scale (BPRS) Positive Symptom Subscale Score [ Time Frame: Before Ketamine, During Ketamine ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Participant received behavioral ratings before medication and during medication for the primary analysis comparison. This is an observer-scale with a value range from 0-6 (0=no symptoms 6=worst symptoms)
- Visual Analog Scale (VAS) Pain Intensity [ Time Frame: Before Ketamine, During Ketamine, Post Ketamine and 1 Week Follow up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Pain intensity was measured on a scale of 1-10 (1=lowest pain intensity, 10=highest pain intensity) in participants before medication, during medication, post medication and 1 week follow up.
- Visual Analog Scale (VAS) Anxiety Rating [ Time Frame: Before Ketamine, During Ketamine, Post Ketamine, 1 week follow up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Anxiety was measured on a scale of 1-10 (1=lowest pain intensity, 10=highest pain intensity) in participants before medication, during medication, post medication and 1 week follow up.
|Study Start Date:||February 2003|
|Study Completion Date:||October 2007|
|Primary Completion Date:||October 2007 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Placebo Comparator: Ketamine plue saline
Ketamine without dexmedetomidine
Ketamine without dexmedetomidine
Experimental: Ketamine plus dexmedetomidine
Ketamine infusion plus dexmedetomidine
Ketamine plus dexmedetomidine
Other Name: Precedex
The proposed study will be conducted using existing dedicated clinical and research space in St. Louis Children's Hospital's Emergency Department, Pediatric Clinical Research Center (PCRC), and Orthopedic Clinic. This project has 3 major aims and 1 exploratory aim addressed by a prospective randomized blinded placebo controlled drug trial to test whether a pharmacological strategy can prevent NMDA receptor hypofunction-induced behavioral and cognitive dysfunction in pre- and post-pubertal children. Based on previous preclinical and clinical research on the effects and blockade of the effects of ketamine and similar compounds, the study investigators have carefully selected a dose of the alpha-2 adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine that will permit this study to be conducted with low risk to enrolled subjects who are undergoing clinically-indicated ketamine sedation for forearm fracture reduction.
General Experimental Design: This project will test the safety and effectiveness of dexmedetomidine for preventing ketamine-induced behavioral and cognitive symptoms in healthy human children undergoing clinically indicated ketamine sedation for forearm fracture reduction.
Aims 1 and 2 will be addressed by randomized, blinded administration of dexmedetomidine or saline placebo to ketamine-sedated subjects to test the efficacy of dexmedetomidine in preventing ketamine-induced behavioral and cognitive changes during recovery from sedation.
Aim 3 will be addressed by comparing between the subjects randomized to receive dexmedetomidine or saline placebo measurements of distress and frequency of adverse cardiopulmonary effects during sedation, fracture-reduction, and recovery.
|United States, Missouri|
|Washington University School of Medicine, Psychiatry Dept.|
|St. Louis, Missouri, United States, 63110|
|Principal Investigator:||John W. Newcomer, M.D.||Washington University School of Medicine and Florida Atlantic University|