Tuberculosis Treatment Shortening Trial

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00130247
First received: August 12, 2005
Last updated: January 31, 2013
Last verified: April 2010
  Purpose

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infection that can affect the lungs and other parts of the body. The usual way to treat TB is to take 4 medicines by mouth every day for 2 months, then take 2 of the same medicines for 4 more months, for a total of 6 months. The purpose of this study is to see if taking 4 months of TB medicines is as effective in curing some TB patients as taking 6 months of TB medicines. Study participants will include 758 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-non-infected individuals, ages 18-60. Participants will be treated with 4 standard drugs called isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. All individuals will take TB medicines for at least 4 months. After 4 months of treatment, if no TB germs are growing in sputum samples, participants will be assigned to either stop taking TB medicine (4 months of treatment) or to continue taking TB drugs for 2 more months (6 months of treatment). Participants will be involved in study procedures for up to 30 months.


Condition Intervention Phase
Tuberculosis
Drug: Pyrazinamide
Drug: Rifampin
Drug: Isoniazid
Drug: Ethambutol
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Prospective Study of Shortening the Duration of Standard Short Course Chemotherapy From 6 Months to 4 Months in HIV-non-infected Patients With Fully Drug-Susceptible, Non-cavitary Pulmonary Tuberculosis With Negative Sputum Cultures After 2 Months of Anti-TB Treatment

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Bacteriologic or Clinical Relapse at 30 Months After Onset of Initial Anti-tuberculosis (TB) Treatment - Intention-to-treat [ Time Frame: 30 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Patients who presented with TB after completion of study phase treatment but before the end of follow-up were classified as relapses. A bacteriologic relapse was defined as a patient who became consistently culture-positive [defined as at least 1 of the following]: (a) at least 1 sputum mycobacterial culture growing at least 10 colonies of MTB on solid medium; (b) 2 or more respiratory secretion cultures that are positive for MTB in liquid media; or (c) any culture from an extrapulmonary site that is positive for MTB during follow-up after successful completion of initial anti-TB treatment.

  • Bacteriologic or Clinical Relapse at 30 Months After Onset of Initial Anti-TB Treatment - Per-protocol [ Time Frame: 30 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Patients who presented with TB after completion of study phase treatment but before the end of follow-up were classified as relapses. A bacteriologic relapse was defined as a patient who became consistently culture-positive [defined as at least 1 of the following]: (a) at least 1 sputum mycobacterial culture growing at least 10 colonies of MTB on solid medium; (b) 2 or more respiratory secretion cultures that are positive for MTB in liquid media; or (c) any culture from an extrapulmonary site that is positive for MTB during follow-up after successful completion of initial anti-TB treatment.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Treatment Failures or Relapses at 2 Years After Completion of TB Treatment: Intention to Treat [ Time Frame: 2 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    A culture-positive treatment failure was defined as initial culture conversion but subsequent reversion to culture positivity. A clinical treatment failure was defined as a patient with clinical and/or radiographic evidence of progressive tuberculosis not confirmed by a positive culture after 4 or more months of anti-TB treatment while still receiving treatment. Patients who defaulted before completing study treatment and returned later with culture-positive tuberculosis were termed failures after non-adherence.

  • Treatment Failures or Relapses at 2 Years After Completion of TB Treatment: Per Protocol [ Time Frame: 2 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    A culture-positive treatment failure was defined as initial culture conversion but subsequent reversion to culture positivity. A clinical treatment failure was defined as a patient with clinical and/or radiographic evidence of progressive tuberculosis not confirmed by a positive culture after 4 or more months of anti-TB treatment while still receiving treatment. Patients who defaulted before completing study treatment and returned later with culture-positive tuberculosis were termed failures after non-adherence.

  • Relapses at 1 and 2 Years [ Time Frame: 1 and 2 years after successful completion of initial anti-TB treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Acquired Drug Resistance in Patients Who Relapsed [ Time Frame: 2 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Immunologic: Changes in Cytokine Levels in Mycobacterium Tubercolosis (MTB) Antigen-stimulated Whole Blood Culture Supernatants - Results Are Pending [ Time Frame: After 2 and 6 months of anti-TB treatment and upon relapse ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Immunologic: Store Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) - Results Are Pending [ Time Frame: Pre-treatment and serum pre-treatment after 2 and 6 months of anti-TB treatment, and at the time of relapse for future immunologic analysis ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Immunologic: Changes in Sputum Cytokine Levels - Results Are Pending [ Time Frame: After 1 and 2 months of anti-TB treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Microbiologic: Changes in Sputum Mycobacterial mRNA - Results Are Pending [ Time Frame: At 1 and 2 months of anti-TB treatment, and upon relapse ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Microbiologic: Time After Inoculation Until Culture Positive in BACTEC 460 or MGIT 960 Enriched Liquid Media After 2 Months in Treatment - Results Are Pending [ Time Frame: Months 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, and 30 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Enrollment: 394
Study Start Date: April 2002
Study Completion Date: November 2008
Primary Completion Date: September 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: 2EHRZ/2HR arm
Daily treatment with isoniazid (INH), rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide for 2 months followed by 2 months of daily INH plus rifampicin over a maximum time period of 18 weeks.
Drug: Pyrazinamide
1st line bactericidal agent; dosages are 15-30 mg/kg/d, up to 2 grams (gm)/d.
Drug: Rifampin
1st line bactericidal agent which inhibits deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-dependent ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase; dosages are 10 mg/kg/d (up to 600 mg/d).
Drug: Isoniazid
Hydrazide of isonicotininc acid; antimicrobial activity is limited to mycobacteria where it inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acids.
Drug: Ethambutol
Mycobacteriostatic agent given to prevent emergence of drug resistance to other 1st line drugs; dosages are 15-25 milligram (mg)/ kilogram (kg)/day (d).
Active Comparator: 2EHRZ/4HR arm
Daily treatment with Isoniazid (INH), rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide for 2 months followed by 4 months of daily INH plus rifampicin over a maximum time period of 28 weeks.
Drug: Pyrazinamide
1st line bactericidal agent; dosages are 15-30 mg/kg/d, up to 2 grams (gm)/d.
Drug: Rifampin
1st line bactericidal agent which inhibits deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-dependent ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase; dosages are 10 mg/kg/d (up to 600 mg/d).
Drug: Isoniazid
Hydrazide of isonicotininc acid; antimicrobial activity is limited to mycobacteria where it inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acids.
Drug: Ethambutol
Mycobacteriostatic agent given to prevent emergence of drug resistance to other 1st line drugs; dosages are 15-25 milligram (mg)/ kilogram (kg)/day (d).

Detailed Description:

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem. TB is the current leading cause of death due to an identifiable infectious agent worldwide. One of the highest priorities for tuberculosis control programs is to shorten anti-TB treatment while maintaining its effectiveness. Current 6-month short course chemotherapy regimens are over 95% effective for the treatment of tuberculosis when fully administered. Six months is a long time, however, and patients frequently discontinue anti-TB treatment once their symptoms have improved. The duration of standard short course chemotherapy is one of the major obstacles to its successful application and poses substantial challenges to programs with respect to patient adherence, program resource needs, and logistical requirements for directly observed therapy. The primary objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of shortening anti-TB treatment to 4 months in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-non-infected adults with drug-susceptible, non-cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis who convert their sputum culture to negative after 2 months of treatment. Secondary objectives of this study include: comparing pre-treatment sputum bacillary load in patients with and without cavitary disease; compare time after inoculation of BACTEC or Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture media until positive with semi-quantitative sputum acid fast bacteria (AFB) smear and culture on solid media as measures of pre-treatment sputum bacillary load; and determining the influence of immunologic characteristics of subjects pre-treatment, during treatment and at the end of therapy on rate of bacillary clearance and risk for relapse. A total of 758 HIV-non-infected adults, male or female, 18-60 years of age, with newly diagnosed initial episodes of sputum AFB smear-positive or -negative, culture-positive, non-cavitary, drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who are sputum culture negative after 2 months of anti-TB treatment will be randomly assigned to complete a total of 4 or 6 months of anti-TB therapy. The experimental regimen will include a total of 4 months of anti-TB treatment [2 months of daily isoniazid (INH), rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol followed by 2 months of daily INH and rifampicin]. The comparative regimen will include a total of 6 months standard short course anti-TB chemotherapy (2 months of daily INH, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol followed by 4 months of daily INH and rifampicin). Subjects will be involved in study related procedures for approximately 30 months after beginning the initial anti-TB treatment.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 60 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Adults, male or female, aged 18-60.
  • Newly diagnosed initial episodes of pulmonary tuberculosis. Sputum smear-positive and -negative patients are eligible for enrollment. The diagnosis of tuberculosis must be confirmed by culture. Acid fast bacteria (AFB) smear positive patients found later not to have tuberculosis (TB) (i.e. those with non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease) and those without culture confirmation [at least one culture on solid media growing > 10 colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) or a positive BACTEC or Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) enriched liquid culture growing MTB] will be removed from the study.
  • Chest X-ray and clinical findings consistent with tuberculosis.
  • Hemoglobin greater than or equal to 8 gm/dL (greater than or equal to 5.0 mmol/L).
  • Serum creatinine < 2 mg/dL (< 177 micro mol/L).
  • Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) < 1.5 times the upper limit of normal for the testing laboratory, and serum total bilirubin < 1.3 mg/dL (22.2 micro mol/L).
  • Random serum glucose less than or equal to 150 mg/dl (8.3 mmol/L).
  • Ambulatory.
  • Willing to provide informed consent for study participation, provide required specimens for examination, and to undergo and receive results of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing.
  • Willing to receive supervised anti-TB treatment.
  • Completion of the required 112 doses of chemotherapy within 18 weeks of starting treatment.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected.
  • History of prior tuberculosis or history of previous tuberculosis treatment.
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Cavitary tuberculosis on initial chest X-ray (taken within 14 days of study entry).
  • Exposure to person(s) with known drug resistant tuberculosis.
  • Patients receiving chronic steroids or other immunosuppressive medications.
  • Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • Patients with drug resistant tuberculosis (resistance to isoniazid (INH), rifampicin, pyrazinamide or ethambutol).
  • Professional sex worker, alcoholic and/or intravenous (IV) drug abuser.
  • Silicosis or other serious chronic medical problems including diabetes mellitus or chronic renal failure.

Final determination of eligibility will be made after review of drug susceptibility testing results on an initial sputum isolate and results of all sputum cultures.

Pregnant patients may not be enrolled in the study. Patients in the 4 month arm who become pregnant during months 5 and 6 of study participation will be dropped from the study and receive an additional 2 months of treatment with INH and rifampicin.

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00130247

Locations
Brazil
Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo/HUCAM
Vitoria, Brazil, 29040-091
Philippines
Makati Medical Center
Makati City, Philippines, 1229
Uganda
Tuberculosis Research Control Center, Mulago Hospital
Kampala, Uganda
Sponsors and Collaborators
  More Information

Publications:

Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00130247     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 01-009, TBRU 8
Study First Received: August 12, 2005
Results First Received: August 20, 2009
Last Updated: January 31, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration
United States: Federal Government
United States: Institutional Review Board
Philippines: Institutional Review Board or Ethics Committee of Makerere University
Uganda: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Tuberculosis, Uganda, Brazil, Philippines

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Tuberculosis
Actinomycetales Infections
Bacterial Infections
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Mycobacterium Infections
Ethambutol
Isoniazid
Pyrazinamide
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Antimetabolites
Antitubercular Agents
Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Hypolipidemic Agents
Lipid Regulating Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Pharmacologic Actions
Therapeutic Uses

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on October 22, 2014