Safety and Blood Levels of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in HIV Infected Pregnant Women and Their Babies

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00120471
First received: July 14, 2005
Last updated: September 12, 2013
Last verified: September 2013
  Purpose

To prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in resource-limited countries, a simple yet effective treatment plan is needed. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is an anti-HIV drug approved for use in the United States for the treatment of HIV infected adults. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety, tolerability, and blood levels of TDF in HIV infected pregnant women and their babies. The study will be conducted at sites in Malawi and Brazil.


Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections
Drug: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
Phase 1

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Phase I Open Label Trial of the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in HIV-1 Infected Pregnant Women and Their Infants

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Frequency of adverse events with a severity of Grade 3 or higher attributable to receipt of TDF [ Time Frame: Throughout study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Maintenance of infant serum concentrations of TDF greater than 50 ng/ml [ Time Frame: Through Week 1 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Maternal HIV-1 RNA levels [ Time Frame: At study entry, Days 5 to 7, and Week 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Viral resistance to TDF in all HIV-1 infected infants, all of the corresponding mothers (transmitters), and a subset of mothers whose infants are not infected (nontransmitters). Analysis of TDF in mothers may include testing of breastmilk samples. [ Time Frame: Throughout study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • HIV infection in infants [ Time Frame: Throughout study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • TDF concentration in amniotic fluid and breast milk [ Time Frame: Through Week 1 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Enrollment: 122
Study Start Date: November 2006
Study Completion Date: December 2011
Primary Completion Date: October 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: 1
Pregnant participants will receive a single dose of TDF during active labor. These participants will be hospitalized at the delivery facility through Day 3 postpartum.
Drug: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
600-mg tablet taken orally once daily
Other Name: TDF
Experimental: 2
Pregnant participants will not receive TDF. Participants will be hospitalized at the delivery facility through Day 7 postpartum. Their infants will receive TDF at birth and on Days 3 and 5 after birth.
Drug: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
4-mg/kg oral suspension taken at birth and on Days 3 and 5 after birth
Other Name: TDF
Experimental: 3
Pregnant participants will be hospitalized at the delivery facility through Day 7 postpartum. They will receive TDF during active labor and their infants will receive TDF at birth and on Days 3 and 5 after birth.
Drug: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
600-mg tablet taken orally once daily
Other Name: TDF
Drug: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
4-mg/kg oral suspension taken at birth and on Days 3 and 5 after birth
Other Name: TDF
Experimental: 4
Pregnant participants will be hospitalized at the delivery facility through Day 7 postpartum. Mothers will receive TDF during active labor and their infants will receive TDF at birth and daily for 7 days after birth.
Drug: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
600-mg tablet taken orally once daily
Other Name: TDF
Drug: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
6-mg/kg oral suspension taken at birth and daily for 7 days after birth
Other Name: TDF

Detailed Description:

Rates of MTCT of HIV have dramatically decreased in resource-rich countries since the introduction of antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis; increased prenatal care, HIV testing, and counseling; elective cesarean delivery; and avoidance of breastfeeding. In resource-limited countries, however, MTCT of HIV continues to be a widespread problem. In these parts of the world, ARV prophylaxis is too expensive and too difficult to adequately administer; mothers often do not receive proper prenatal care; cesarean delivery may pose risks to the mother and and her infant; and due to the lack of safe, affordable, and socially acceptable alternatives, HIV infected mothers breastfeed their infants. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of TDF in HIV infected pregnant women and their infants.

Participants in this study will be enrolled through 12 months after delivery. During the last trimester of pregnancy, HIV infected women will be screened for eligibility. Women will be enrolled into the study upon presentation at the study site for delivery. Standard of care with ARVs for prevention of MTCT will be offered to all women and their infants both inside and outside of the study; however, such ARVs will not be provided by this study.

There will be four cohorts in this study:

  • Cohort 1 women will receive a single dose of TDF (SD TDF) during active labor. Cohort 1 women will be hospitalized at the delivery facility through Day 3 postpartum.
  • Cohort 2 women will not receive any TDF. Cohort 2 women will be hospitalized at the delivery facility through Day 7 postpartum. Their infants will receive TDF at birth and on Days 3 and 5 after birth.
  • Cohort 3 will not begin enrolling women until data safety evaluations of Cohorts 1 and 2 are completed. Cohort 3 women will be hospitalized at the delivery facility through Day 7 postpartum. Women in Cohort 3 will receive SD TDF during active labor, and their infants will receive TDF at birth and on Days 3 and 5 after birth.
  • Cohort 4, which was added to the study based on a review of data from the other cohorts, will be similar to Cohort 3, except that infants will receive daily TDF for the 7 days after birth. Researchers believe this higher and more frequent dosing of TDF in infants will help them meet the target TDF concentration specified in the protocol.

There will be seven study visits for women at study entry (Day 0), Day 2, between Days 5 and 7, at Weeks 6 and 12, and at Months 6 and 12 postpartum. Medical history, a short physical exam, and blood collection will occur at all visits. In Cohorts 1, 3, and 4, blood collection for PK studies will occur prior to receiving TDF and seven times post-dose.

There will be eight study visits for infants, which will occur within 24 hours of birth; on Day 3; between Days 5 and 7; at Weeks 6 and 12; and at Months 6, 9, and 12. Medical history, a physical exam, and blood collection will occur at all visits. Infants will have x-rays to assess bone health at Day 3 and Month 3, except in Cohort 4, which will not include x-rays of infants. Infants of Cohort 1 will have blood collection for PK studies at birth and four times after birth. Infants of Cohorts 2 and 3 will undergo blood collections for PK studies at birth, Day 3, and Day 5. Blood collection at these visits will occur before receiving TDF and 2 and 10 hours after receiving TDF. At birth, an additional collection will occur 18 to 24 hours after receiving TDF, and on Day 5, two additional collections will occur--at 18 to 24 hours and at 36 to 48 hours after receiving TDF. Infants of Cohort 4 will have blood collection for PK studies at birth and after their fourth and seventh doses of TDF.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria for HIV Infected Pregnant Women:

  • HIV-1 infected
  • Intend to deliver at the study site
  • Willing to be contacted or visited at home
  • Willing to be admitted to and remain in the delivery facility through Day 3 postpartum (Cohort 1) or Day 7 postpartum (Cohorts 2 and 3)

Exclusion Criteria for HIV Infected Pregnant Women:

  • Prior treatment with TDF
  • Active opportunistic infection
  • Serious bacterial infection
  • Chronic malabsorption or diarrhea during the current pregnancy
  • Clinically significant disease or condition that, in the opinion of the study clinician, would interfere with the study
  • Known multiple gestation (twins, etc.) prior to study entry
  • Participation in any other therapeutic or vaccine trial during the current pregnancy
  • Use of certain medications
  • Any other condition or situation that, in the opinion of the investigator, would interfere with the study
  • For Cohort 4, use of atazanavir or lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) within 2 weeks of anticipated delivery

Exclusion Criteria for Infants Born to HIV Infected Pregnant Women:

  • Birth weight of less than 2 kg (4.4 lbs)
  • Severe congenital malformation or other medical condition that may affect survival and, in the opinion of the clinician, participation in this study
  • Grade 2 or higher serum creatinine level or any other Grade 3 or higher toxicity
  • Part of a multiple birth (twins, etc.)
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00120471

Locations
Brazil
Federal Univ. of Minas Gerais
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre
Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceicao CRS
Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 91350-200
HSE-Hospital dos Servidores do Estado CRS
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20221-903
Malawi
College of Med. JHU CRS
Blantyre, Malawi
Sponsors and Collaborators
Investigators
Study Chair: Mark Mirochnick, MD Boston Medical Center
Study Chair: Taha Taha, MD, PhD Johns Hopkins University
Study Chair: Regis Kreitchmann, MD Centro Municipal de DST/AIDS, Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00120471     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: HPTN 057, 10143
Study First Received: July 14, 2005
Last Updated: September 12, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Perinatal Transmission
MTCT
HIV Seronegativity

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Slow Virus Diseases
Tenofovir
Tenofovir disoproxil
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Pharmacologic Actions
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Anti-HIV Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 27, 2014