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Daily Isoniazid to Prevent Tuberculosis in Infants Born to Mothers With HIV

This study has been terminated.
(Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) recommended stopping study due to futility)
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Comprehensive International Program of Research on AIDS
Secure the Future Foundation
Information provided by:
International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00080119
First received: March 23, 2004
Last updated: February 10, 2011
Last verified: February 2011
  Purpose

Tuberculosis (TB) is highly endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The increased burden of TB in settings with high prevalence of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is associated with high rates of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) to both adults and children. Children infected with TB have a higher risk of developing severe disease than adults with TB. The purpose of this study was to determine if the antibiotic isoniazid (INH) prevented TB infection in infants born to HIV-infected mothers.


Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infection
Tuberculosis
Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia
Drug: Isoniazid (INH)
Drug: Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX)
Drug: Isoniazid Placebo (PL)
Phase 2
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Isoniazid (INH) in Preventing Tuberculosis Disease and Latent Tuberculosis Infection Among Infants With Perinatal Exposure to HIV

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Time to Development of Tuberculosis (TB) Disease or Death Among HIV-infected Children [ Time Frame: Through to week 96 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Criteria for diagnosis with TB disease: Definite-isolation of Mycobacterium TB (M.tb) or +ve stain on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); Probable- +ve acid fast bacilli (AFB) stain on fluids/tissues other than CSF and sufficient clinical criteria/radiographic evidence suggestive of TB; Possible-abnormal chest radiograph suggestive of pulmonary TB (PTB) and either a +ve tuberculin skin test (TST) or minimum score on algorithm for clinical TB. Records reviewed by Endpoint Review Group. Results report percent of participants reaching TB disease/death by week 96 calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

  • Time From Randomization to Development of TB Infection or Death Among Perinatally Exposed, HIV-uninfected Children [ Time Frame: Through to week 96 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Criteria for diagnosis with TB infection were outlined in the protocol. TB infection included TB disease (see primary outcome measure 1 for definition) and latent TB infection. Latent TB infection was diagnosed by a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) based on a purified protein derivative (PPD) performed at week 96. Participant records were reviewed by an Endpoint Review Group to verify that participants had met the criteria for TB infection. Results report percent of participants reaching TB infection or death by week 96 calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Time From Randomization to Development of TB Infection or Death Among HIV-infected Children [ Time Frame: Through to week 96 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Criteria for diagnosis with TB infection were outlined in the protocol. TB infection included TB disease (see primary outcome measure 1 for definition) and latent TB infection. Latent TB infection was diagnosed by a positive TST based on a PPD performed at week 96. Participant records were reviewed by an Endpoint Review Group to verify that participants had met the criteria for TB infection. Results report percent of participants reaching TB infection or death by week 96 calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

  • Time From Randomization to HIV Disease Progression or Death Among HIV-infected Children [ Time Frame: Through to week 96 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    HIV disease progression was defined as any advancement in Centers for Disease Control (CDC) disease category from entry or death. If a participant was CDC disease category C at entry progression was defined as death. Results report percent of participants with HIV progression or death by week 96 calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

  • Time From Randomization to Development of TB Disease or Death Among Perinatally Exposed, HIV-uninfected Children [ Time Frame: Through to week 96 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Criteria for diagnosis with TB disease were: Definite-isolation of M.tb or positive stain on CSF; Probable-positive AFB stain on fluids/tissues other than CSF and sufficient clinical criteria/radiographic evidence suggestive of TB; Possible-abnormal chest radiograph suggestive of PTB and either a +ve TST or minimum score on algorithm to diagnose clinical TB. All records were reviewed by an Endpoint Review Group to verify that participants had met the criteria for TB disease. Results report percent of participants reaching TB disease/death by week 96 calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

  • Time From Randomization to Development of TB Disease Among HIV Infected and Perinatally Exposed, HIV-uninfected Children [ Time Frame: Through to week 96 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Criteria for diagnosis with TB disease were: Definite-isolation of M.tb or positive stain on CSF; Probable-positive AFB stain on fluids/tissues other than CSF and sufficient clinical criteria/radiographic evidence suggestive of TB; Possible-abnormal chest radiograph suggestive of PTB and either a +ve TST or minimum score on algorithm to diagnose clinical TB. All records were reviewed by an Endpoint Review Group to verify that participants had met the criteria for TB disease. Results report percent of participants reaching TB disease/death by week 96 calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

  • Time From Randomization to Development of TB Infection Among HIV-infected and Perinatally Exposed, HIV-uninfected Children [ Time Frame: Through to week 96 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Criteria for diagnosis with TB infection were outlined in the protocol. TB infection included TB disease (see primary outcome measure 1 for definition) and latent TB infection. Latent TB infection was diagnosed by a positive TST based on a PPD performed at week 96. Participant records were reviewed by an Endpoint Review Group to verify that participants had met the criteria for TB infection. Results report percent of participants reaching TB infection by week 96 calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

  • Time From Randomization to Death Among HIV-infected and Perinatally Exposed, HIV-uninfected Children [ Time Frame: Through to week 96 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Deaths from any cause were included. Results report percent of participants dying by week 96 calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

  • Time From Randomization to First New Grade 3 or Worse Adverse Event Among HIV-infected and Perinatally Exposed, HIV-uninfected Children [ Time Frame: Through to week 96 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Signs, symptoms and laboratory values were graded according to the Division of AIDS Adverse Event Grading System. Any event of grade 3 or higher not present at entry that occurred after randomization was classified as a new event. Results report percent of participants with a new event by week 96 calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.


Enrollment: 1354
Study Start Date: February 2004
Study Completion Date: May 2009
Primary Completion Date: May 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: HIVneg/INH
Perinatally exposed, HIV-uninfected (HIVneg) children receiving Isoniazid (INH)10-20 mg/kg orally once a day for 96 weeks + Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) 5 mg/kg of TMP component orally once a day until HIV status is confirmed and child is no longer at risk of acquiring HIV through breastfeeding
Drug: Isoniazid (INH)
Antibiotic for the prevention and treatment of TB
Drug: Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX)
Antibiotic for the prevention and treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
Placebo Comparator: HIVneg/PL
Perinatally exposed, HIV-uninfected (HIVneg) children receiving Isoniazid placebo (PL) orally once a day for 96 weeks + TMP/SMX 5 mg/kg of TMP component orally once a day until HIV status is confirmed and child is no longer at risk of acquiring HIV through breastfeeding
Drug: Isoniazid Placebo (PL)
Isoniazid placebo and TMP/SMX
Experimental: HIVpos/INH
HIV-infected (HIVpos) children receiving Isoniazid (INH) 10-20 mg/kg orally once a day for 96 weeks + TMP/SMX 5 mg/kg of TMP component orally once a day until one year of age. TMP/SMX may have been continued after one year of age according to WHO guidelines.
Drug: Isoniazid (INH)
Antibiotic for the prevention and treatment of TB
Drug: Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX)
Antibiotic for the prevention and treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
Placebo Comparator: HIVpos/PL
HIV-infected (HIVpos) children receiving Isoniazid placebo (PL) orally once a day for 96 weeks + TMP/SMX 5 mg/kg of TMP component orally once a day until one year of age. TMP/SMX may have been continued after one year of age according to WHO guidelines.
Drug: Isoniazid Placebo (PL)
Isoniazid placebo and TMP/SMX

Detailed Description:

Tuberculosis (TB) and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are major public health problems in southern Africa, and the incidence of TB in South Africa is among the highest in the world. TB is caused by the highly contagious bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The use of Isoniazid (INH) prophylaxis in adults has been associated with reduced risk of TB disease in high-risk populations. Delay in initiating INH prophylaxis in children has resulted in more cases of childhood TB infection. This study evaluated the effectiveness of INH prophylaxis in preventing TB infection in infants born to HIV-infected mothers in southern Africa.

Infants were randomly assigned to receive either INH or placebo by mouth daily, beginning between the 91st and 120th day of life, and at least 90 days after Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. At sites in South Africa, HIV-infected infants received daily trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) as Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis until at least 1 year of age; HIV-uninfected infants received TMP/SMX until at least 6 months of age.

The study was to follow participants for 192 weeks. Study visits occurred at study entry and every 12 weeks until week 192. A physical exam and blood collection occurred at each study visit. Infants were assessed for peripheral neuropathy every 12 weeks until week 96 and for TB at weeks 96, 144, and 192. The study also assessed medication adherence.

As of November 12, 2008, follow-up was revised. All participants were permanently discontinued from study follow-up by February 28, 2009 and no later than May 31, 2009. Only clinical evaluations were performed for all participants. For HIV-infected participants, the study drug was stopped at the next scheduled visit. For HIV-uninfected subjects, the study drug was discontinued immediately.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   91 Days to 120 Days
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Mother is HIV-infected. Hard copy documentation of the mother's HIV infection is unnecessary if a positive DNA PCR from her infant is available.
  • Received Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine up to and including the 30th day of life and at least 90 days prior to study entry
  • Able to complete all study requirements
  • Physician assessment of age-appropriate neurodevelopment in which the chronological age is corrected for gestational age for prematurely born infants
  • Parent or legal guardian able and willing to provide signed informed consent
  • Plan to live in the study area for at least 4 years
  • For inclusion in HIV-infected stratum, infant must have a positive HIV-1 DNA PCR; for inclusion in HIV-uninfected stratum, infant must have a negative HIV-1 DNA PCR performed at >= 4 weeks of age

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Previous diagnosis of TB infection, TB disease or current treatment for TB infection or TB disease
  • Previous receipt of INH
  • Contact with a known acid fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smear or culture-positive case of TB before study entry
  • Current acute or recurrent (3 or more prior episodes) lower respiratory tract disease
  • Chronic persistent diarrhea
  • Failure to thrive
  • Contraindications for use of INH or TMP/SMX
  • Require certain medications
  • Known or suspected immune system diseases other than HIV
  • Current or previous diagnosis of or treatment for cancer
  • Current immunosuppressive therapy greater than 1 mg/kg/day of prednisone or equivalent
  • Anticipated long-term oral or intravenous corticosteroid therapy (greater than 3 weeks). Those receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and inhaled corticosteroids are not excluded.
  • Grade 3 or greater AST/SGOT, ALT/SGPT, ANC, hemoglobin, platelet count, rash, neuropathy, or myopathy at screening
  • Any Grade 4 clinical or laboratory toxicity within 14 days prior to study entry
  • Other acute or chronic conditions that, in the opinion of the investigator, may interfere with the study
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00080119

Locations
Botswana
Princess Marina Hospital
Gaborone, Botswana
South Africa
University of Cape Town, Red Cross Children's Hospital
Cape Town, South Africa
University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg Hospital
Cape Town, South Africa
Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban
Durban, South Africa, 4001
Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Harriet Shezi Clinic
Johannesburg, South Africa
Perinatal HIV Research Unit at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital
Johannesburg, South Africa, 2013
Sponsors and Collaborators
International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group
Comprehensive International Program of Research on AIDS
Secure the Future Foundation
Investigators
Study Chair: Shabir Madhi, MD University of the Witwatersrand
Study Chair: George McSherry, MD UMDNJ - New Jersey Medical School
Study Chair: Charles D. Mitchell, MD University of Miami
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Wende Levy, IMPAACT
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00080119     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: PACTG P1041, U01AI068632
Study First Received: March 23, 2004
Results First Received: July 1, 2010
Last Updated: February 10, 2011
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Keywords provided by International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group:
Treatment Naive
INH Prophylaxis
HIV Seronegativity

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Communicable Diseases
HIV Infections
Infection
Latent Tuberculosis
Pneumonia, Pneumocystis
Tuberculosis
Actinomycetales Infections
Bacterial Infections
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Immune System Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Lentivirus Infections
Lung Diseases
Lung Diseases, Fungal
Mycobacterium Infections
Mycoses
Pneumocystis Infections
Pneumonia
RNA Virus Infections
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Respiratory Tract Infections
Retroviridae Infections
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Slow Virus Diseases
Virus Diseases
Isoniazid
Sulfamethoxazole
Trimethoprim

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on November 27, 2014