Effects of Changing HIV Therapy at Lower Versus Higher Viral Loads

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00036465
First received: May 10, 2002
Last updated: July 26, 2013
Last verified: July 2013
  Purpose

This study will look at people who have been taking anti-HIV drugs but still have detectable levels of HIV. The purpose of the study is to find out what happens in those people who change anti-HIV drugs when their viral load reaches 200 copies compared to those who change anti-HIV drugs when their viral load reaches 10,000 copies. This study will also look at drug resistance (how well HIV responds to drugs), viral fitness (how well drug-resistant HIV copies itself), and immunologic reconstitution (how well the immune system recognizes various infections, including HIV).

Many patients experience virologic relapse (increase in viral load after sustained viral load suppression) within 1 to 2 years of taking anti-HIV drugs. The approach to treatment for patients who experience virologic relapse while on a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has not been defined. Current guidelines recommend switching to a new treatment regimen as soon as possible to prevent HIV from becoming even more resistant to anti-HIV drugs. However, there is evidence that patients can benefit from staying on the same HAART drugs, even after virologic relapse. This study wants to find what happens when drugs are changed immediately after virologic relapse (when the viral load is lower) compared to what happens if drugs are changed only after a delay (when the viral load is higher).


Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections
Behavioral: Treatment regimen change
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase II, Randomized, Controlled, Pilot Study of Antiretroviral Switch at Lower Versus Higher HIV-1 RNA Levels in Subjects Experiencing Virologic Relapse on a Current HAART Regimen

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Estimated Enrollment: 60
Study Completion Date: September 2005
Detailed Description:

Virologic relapse occurs within 1 to 2 years of antiretroviral therapy in up to 50 percent of HIV-infected individuals. The best treatment approach for patients who experience virologic rebound while on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has not been defined. Current guidelines recommend switching to a new treatment regimen shortly after virologic rebound in an effort to avoid sequential accumulation of multiple resistance mutations. However, early treatment switching has numerous disadvantages: risk of virologic rebound on the new therapy, a limited number of drug combinations available to treat such rebounds, and difficulty in obtaining early genotypic and phenotypic drug-resistance information to guide treatment modification. Delaying a switch to a new antiretroviral regimen has the advantage of preserving future treatment options, and HIV levels may remain partially suppressed even after drug-resistant mutants emerge. Moreover, several observational studies describe maintenance of immunologic and clinical benefits of HAART even after virologic rebound. Delayed treatment switches, however, raise concerns about sequential accumulation of drug resistance mutations that may diminish the chances of viral resuppression with successive HAART regimens, and the long-term immune consequences of virologic rebound on HAART are not known. It is therefore important to evaluate the viral and immunologic responses among patients randomized to either an early or delayed HAART switch.

This study enrolls patients who have a viral load of at least 200, but less than 10,000 copies/ml. The patients are randomized into 2 treatment arms. Arm A (immediate switch) patients have genotypic resistance testing at entry. Based on the resistance test results, their antiretroviral treatment regimen is modified to a switch treatment regimen. Switch treatment initiates no later than Week 4. Arm B (delayed switch) patients continue their current antiretroviral regimen and have genotypic resistance testing when their plasma HIV-1 RNA levels reach 10,000 copies/ml or greater. Based on the resistance test results, their antiretroviral treatment regimen is modified to a switch treatment regimen. Switch treatment initiates no later than 4 weeks from the date of at least 10,000 copies/ml viral load, or from the date of an absolute CD4 count reduced by 20 percent from baseline value. Patients who never meet the switch criteria remain on study.

All patients are followed for a minimum of 48 weeks after entry. No antiretroviral drugs are provided by the study.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   13 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria

Patients may be eligible for this study if they:

  • Are HIV-infected.
  • Have a CD4 cell count of 200 cells/mm3 or more within 45 days prior to entry.
  • Are currently receiving the same HAART regimen for at least 4 months.
  • Had a documented viral load of less than 500 copies/ml at any time prior to screening on the current stable antiretroviral regimen.
  • Have a detectable plasma viral load on current stable anti-HIV regimen, as defined in the protocol, within 52 weeks prior to screening.
  • Are willing to remain on their current regimen until their scheduled switch.
  • Have a negative pregnancy test within 48 hours prior to entry.
  • Are at least 13 years old.
  • Agree not to participate in the conception process (active attempts to become pregnant or to make someone pregnant) while on study and for 60 days after going off study.
  • Agree to use 2 acceptable forms of contraception while on study and for 60 days after going off study.

Exclusion Criteria

Patients may not be eligible for this study if they:

  • Do not adhere with current antiretroviral therapy.
  • Have an infection or cancer that requires treatment within 45 days prior to entry.
  • Are pregnant or breast-feeding.
  • Have used any experimental agents, systemic corticosteroids, or drugs that interfere with the immune system within 45 days prior to entry.
  • Have received any HIV vaccine within 90 days prior to entry.
  • Use drugs or alcohol that, in the opinion of the investigator, would interfere with the study.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00036465

  Show 23 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Investigators
Study Chair: Sharon Riddler
  More Information

Additional Information:
No publications provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00036465     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: A5115, AACTG A5115, ACTG A5115, 10933
Study First Received: May 10, 2002
Last Updated: July 26, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Pilot Projects
HIV-1
RNA, Viral
Genotype
Viral Load
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
Treatment Experienced

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
HIV Infections
Immune System Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Slow Virus Diseases
Virus Diseases

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on October 21, 2014