Islet Transplantation for Type 1 Diabetes

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Immune Tolerance Network (ITN)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00014911
First received: April 13, 2001
Last updated: June 4, 2014
Last verified: June 2014
  Purpose

The purpose of this study is to test whether the islet cell transplantation procedures and results from a previous study in Edmonton, Canada, can be repeated. The study also is designed to learn more about diabetes control using islet cell transplantation.

This is a Phase I/II study (a study that examines effectiveness and looks for side effects). The transplanting of islet cells has been studied in Type 1 diabetic patients whose blood sugar levels will not stay normal, despite intensive insulin therapy. A recent study conducted in Edmonton, Canada, was able to demonstrate that islet transplantation led to insulin independence in a majority of the patients treated. This study extends the results obtained from the Edmonton study, which used islet transplantation in Type 1 diabetic patients with steroid-free immunosuppression.


Condition Intervention Phase
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent
Procedure: Islet Transplantation
Drug: Sirolimus
Drug: Tacrolimus
Drug: Daclizumab
Drug: Sulfamethoxazole
Drug: Ganciclovir
Drug: Trimethoprim
Drug: Pentamidine
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Islet Transplantation for Type 1 Diabetic Patients Using the Edmonton Protocol of Steroid Free Immunosuppression (ITN005CT)

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Percent of Participants That Achieved Insulin Independence With Adequate Control of Blood Glucose Levels at One Year Post Final Islet Transplantation. [ Time Frame: One year status post participant receipt of final islet transplantation ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Insulin independence: exogenous insulin not required and glycemic control is achieved as defined by maintaining 1.) a blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level < 6.5% (Normal:<5.7%; pre-diabetes: 5.7% -6.4%; diabetes: 6.5% or higher),2) a blood glucose level after an overnight fast not exceeding 140 mg per deciliter (dL) more than three times in any week (Normal: 70 to 120 mg/dL), and 3)not exceeding a 2-hour postprandial blood glucose level of 180 mg/dL more than four times per week (Normal: <140mg/dL if <=50 years of age, <150 mg/dL for ages 50-60 years and <160 mg/dL for ages 60+)


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Percent of Participants With Partial Islet Function One Year Post Final Islet Transplantation. [ Time Frame: One year post receipt of final islet transplantation ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Partial islet function definition: a fasting basal C-peptide level >= 0.3 ng/mL and a continuing need for insulin or suboptimal glycemic control (Note: C-peptide is a substance that the pancreas releases into the bloodstream in equal amounts to insulin, thereby showing how much insulin the body is making). Adequate glycemic control is defined by: 1) a blood HbA1c level <6.5%, 2) a blood glucose level after an overnight fast not exceeding 140 mg/dL more than three times in any week and, 3) a 2-hour postprandial blood glucose level not exceeding 180 mg/dL more than four times per week

  • Percent of Participants That Achieved Insulin Independence From First Transplant [ Time Frame: First transplantation until end of study (up to six years post final transplantation) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Insulin independence: exogenous insulin not required and glycemic control is achieved as defined by maintaining 1) a blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level < 6.5% (Normal:<5.7%; pre-diabetes: 5.7% -6.4%; diabetes: 6.5% or higher),2) a blood glucose level after an overnight fast not exceeding 140 mg per deciliter (dL) more than three times in any week (Normal: 70 to 120 mg/dL), and 3)not exceeding a 2-hour postprandial blood glucose level of 180 mg/dL more than four times per week (Normal: <140mg/dL if <=50 years of age, <150 mg/dL for ages 50-60 years and <160 mg/dL for ages 60+)

  • Percent of Participants With Detectable Fasting Basal C-Peptide Levels [ Time Frame: Two years post first transplantation ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    C-peptide is a substance that the pancreas releases into the bloodstream in equal amounts to insulin, thereby showing how much insulin the body is making. C-peptide secretion is used to measure the function of transplanted islets. Higher levels indicate better islet function. Detectable fasting basal levels of C-peptide secretion are >=0.3 ng/ml.


Enrollment: 36
Study Start Date: April 2001
Study Completion Date: August 2010
Primary Completion Date: June 2005 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Islet Transplantation
All study participants
Procedure: Islet Transplantation
Participants will receive portal vein islet infusions (up to 3), e.g., islet transplantations, with a targeted total of exceeding 10,000 islet equivalents per kilogram of body weight (IE/kg) per infusion. Up to three transplants are possible depending on individual results.
Drug: Sirolimus
Administered at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg by mouth once pre-transplantation then 0.1 mg/kg daily post-transplantation. Dosing will be adjusted to achieve a trough peripheral blood level of 12-15 ng/mL x3 months after transplantation and 7-12 ng/mL for the remainder of the study.
Drug: Tacrolimus
Administered at a dose of 1 mg by mouth once pre-transplantation followed by 1 mg twice daily post transplantation. Levels will be adjusted to achieve a peripheral blood trough level of 3-6 ng/mL for maintenance immunosuppression.
Drug: Daclizumab
Administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg intravenously immediately pre-transplantation and 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks post-transplantation, totaling 5 doses(over 8 weeks). Further daclizumab dosing may be necessary based on individual results and islet transplantation needs.
Drug: Sulfamethoxazole
An antibacterial used to prevent opportunistic infections
Drug: Ganciclovir
An antiviral used to kill viruses and stop viral replication
Drug: Trimethoprim
An antibacterial used to prevent opportunistic infections
Drug: Pentamidine
An antiprotozoal used to prevent disease

Detailed Description:

This is a Phase I/II study (a study that examines effectiveness and looks for side effects). The transplanting of islet cells has been studied in Type 1 diabetic patients whose blood sugar levels will not stay normal, despite intensive insulin therapy. A recent study conducted in Edmonton, Canada, was able to demonstrate that islet transplantation led to insulin independence in a majority of the patients treated. This study extends the results obtained from the Edmonton study, which used islet transplantation in Type 1 diabetic patients with steroid-free immunosuppression.

Eligible patients were randomly selected from the total pool of people who applied through the Immune Tolerance Network. Patients will receive at least 10,000 "islet equivalents" per kilogram (2.2 pounds) of body weight. This likely will require 2 separate islet infusions from 2 separate donors. Immediately before the first transplant, patients will be given anti-rejection (immune suppressing) drugs, including tacrolimus and sirolimus (orally) and daclizumab (intravenously). The islets will be infused into the liver through a tube placed in the portal vein. Heparin (a medication to prevent blood clots) will be administered with the islet infusion. A longer-acting form of heparin will also be given by daily injections during the next week after each transplant. After surgery, patients will receive insulin intravenously for 24 hours. Patients will have an abdominal ultrasound and blood tests to determine liver function. If fewer than 10,000 islets were transplanted, patients will continue insulin treatment, with the dosages adjusted if necessary to account for the transplanted islets. They will take daclizumab every 2 weeks for 8 weeks and tacrolimus and sirolimus daily. Patients will be given antibiotics to prevent infections. Blood tests to determine how much immunosuppressant drug is in the blood will be performed until the drug is at a stable level. Periodically there will be tests to see if the islet cells are functioning. Blood will be drawn to check drug levels and for other tests routinely. Daily insulin requirements will be checked, and these will be recorded monthly. Patients will be followed for at least 1 year post last islet transplantation. Additional follow-up may be provided at least annually for up to 9 years post first transplantation.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria

Patients may be eligible for this study if they:

  • Have had Type 1 diabetes mellitus for more than 5 years, and are exhibiting 1 of the following, despite intensive insulin management efforts: a) hypoglycemic unawareness, as defined by inability to sense hypoglycemia until the blood glucose falls to less than 54 mg/dL; b) metabolic instability, with 2 or more episodes of severe hypoglycemia (defined as an event with symptoms consistent with hypoglycemia in which the patient requires the assistance of another person and which is associated with a blood glucose below 54 mg/dL) or 2 or more hospital visits for diabetic ketoacidosis over the last year; or c) despite efforts at optimal glucose control, progressive secondary complications of diabetes as defined by retinopathy, nephropathy, or neuropathy.
  • Are 18 to 65 years of age.

Exclusion Criteria

Patients will not be eligible for this study if they:

  • Have had severe cardiac disease as defined by: a) recent myocardial infarction within the past 6 months; b) angiographic evidence of non-correctable coronary artery disease; or c) evidence of ischemia on a functional cardiac exam.
  • Actively abuse alcohol or substances, including cigarette smoking (must not have smoked within the last 6 months).
  • Have psychiatric problems that prevent them from being a suitable candidate for transplantation (such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression that is not controlled or stable on current medication).
  • Have a history of not following prescribed regimens.
  • Have active infection including hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or Tuberculosis (TB) (or under treatment for suspected TB).
  • Have a history of malignancy, except squamous or basal skin cancer.
  • Weigh more than 70 kilograms or have a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than 26 kg/m^2 at time of screening.
  • Have a C-peptide value of 0.3 ng/ml or more following a 5.0 gram intravenous arginine infusion challenge.
  • Are unable to provide informed consent.
  • Have gallstones or hemangioma in liver.
  • Have untreated proliferative retinopathy.
  • Are breast-feeding or pregnant, or intend to try and become pregnant (females) or to father a child (males), or fail to follow birth control methods.
  • Have had a previous transplant, or evidence of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody.
  • Have an insulin requirement of more that 0.7 International Units (IU)/kilograms/day.
  • Have a blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) higher than 12 percent.
  • Are unable to reach the hospital for transplantation within 2 hours of notification.
  • Have untreated or treated hyperlipidemia.
  • Have a medical condition requiring chronic use of steroids.
  • Use coumadin or other anticoagulants (aspirin is allowed).
  • Have Addison's disease.
  • Have a negative screen for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00014911

Locations
United States, Florida
University of Miami
Miami, Florida, United States, 33136
United States, Massachusetts
Massachusetts General Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
United States, Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
United States, Missouri
Washington University
St. Louis, Missouri, United States, 63110
United States, Washington
Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason Research Center
Seattle, Washington, United States, 98101
Canada, Alberta
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Germany
Justus-Leibig University
Giessen, Germany, 35385
Italy
University of Milan
Milan, Italy
Switzerland
University of Geneva
Geneva, Switzerland
Sponsors and Collaborators
Immune Tolerance Network (ITN)
Investigators
Principal Investigator: James Shapiro, MD, PhD University of Alberta
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00014911     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: DAIT ITN005CT (DAIT NIS01)
Study First Received: April 13, 2001
Results First Received: September 13, 2012
Last Updated: June 4, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Autoimmune Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Immune System Diseases
Metabolic Diseases
Daclizumab
Sulfamethoxazole
Trimethoprim
Anti-Infective Agents
Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary
Antimalarials
Antiparasitic Agents
Antiprotozoal Agents
Enzyme Inhibitors
Folic Acid Antagonists
Immunologic Factors
Immunosuppressive Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Pharmacologic Actions
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Renal Agents
Therapeutic Uses

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on October 21, 2014