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Clodronate With or Without Chemotherapy and/or Hormonal Therapy in Treating Women With Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Southwest Oncology Group
North Central Cancer Treatment Group
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
NSABP Foundation Inc
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00009945
First received: February 2, 2001
Last updated: April 2, 2014
Last verified: April 2014
  Purpose

RATIONALE: Clodronate may be effective in preventing the spread of cancer to the bones and other parts of the body. It is not yet known whether clodronate is more effective alone or combined with chemotherapy and /or hormonal therapy in preventing metastatic breast cancer.

PURPOSE: Randomized phase III trial to determine the effectiveness of clodronate with or without chemotherapy and /or hormonal therapy in preventing metastases in women who have stage I or stage II breast cancer.


Condition Intervention Phase
Breast Cancer
Drug: clodronate
Drug: placebo
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Clinical Trial Comparing Adjuvant Clodronate Therapy vs Placebo in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Systemic Chemotherapy and/or Hormonal Therapy or No Therapy

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by NSABP Foundation Inc:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Disease free survival [ Time Frame: Time from randomization to breast cancer recurrence, second primary cancer, or death from any cause ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Skeletal metastasis [ Time Frame: Time from randomization to first diagnosis of skeletal metastasis ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Overall survival [ Time Frame: Time from randomization to death from any cause ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Relapse free survival [ Time Frame: Time from randomization to any local, regional, or distant recurrence of breast cancer ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Incidence of non-skeletal metastasis [ Time Frame: Time from randomization to incidence of non-skeletal metastasis ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Enrollment: 3323
Study Start Date: January 2001
Study Completion Date: December 2012
Primary Completion Date: March 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Arm 1: Clodronate
Patient receives 2 tablets once daily for 3 years.
Drug: clodronate
1600 mg PO daily
Other Names:
  • Bonefos
  • clodronate disodium
Placebo Comparator: Arm 2: Placebo
Patient receives 2 tablets once daily for 3 years.
Drug: placebo
2 pills PO daily

Detailed Description:

OBJECTIVES:

  • Determine whether clodronate administered alone or in addition to adjuvant chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy improves disease-free survival in women with early stage breast cancer.
  • Determine whether clodronate reduces the incidence of skeletal metastases and non-skeletal metastases in these patients.
  • Determine whether clodronate improves overall and relapse-free survival in these patients.
  • Determine whether clodronate reduces the incidence of skeletal morbidity (e.g., skeletal fractures, hypercalcemia, skeletal pain, need for radiotherapy, spinal cord compression) in these patients.
  • Investigate the relevance of serum markers of bone turnover as a prognostic factor for the development of bone metastasis in these patients.

OUTLINE: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients are stratified by age (under 50 vs 50 and over), number of positive lymph nodes (0 vs 1-3 vs 4 or more), and hormone receptor status (estrogen receptor [ER] and progesterone receptor [PR] negative vs ER and/or PR positive). Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms.

Patients in both arms commence treatment within 2 weeks of randomization and continue treatment for 3 years in the absence of bone metastasis or unacceptable toxicity. Study medication must be continued in the case of documented visceral or soft tissue metastasis or other event without skeletal metastasis.

Patients in both arms may also receive adjuvant chemotherapy and/or tamoxifen at the discretion of the protocol investigator. Patients receiving hormonal therapy begin hormonal therapy within 3-12 weeks after the last dose of chemotherapy and continue for a minimum of 5 years.

Patients who have undergone a prior lumpectomy receive adjuvant whole breast radiotherapy. Patients who have undergone a prior mastectomy may receive radiotherapy at the investigator's discretion.

Patients are followed every 6 months for 5 years and then annually thereafter.

PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 3,323 patients will be accrued for this study within 3.5 years.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Eligibility

  • Patients must have undergone either a total mastectomy or a lumpectomy with either an axillary dissection or sentinel node biopsy. If any sentinel node is histologically positive by H & E, or histologically suspicious on H & E and confirmed positive by immunohistochemistry (IHC), then the patient must have a completion axillary dissection.
  • The tumor must be invasive adenocarcinoma on histologic examination with clinical assessment T1-3, N0-1, M0.
  • Patients must not be participating in any other clinical trials of systemic therapy for early-stage breast cancer. Patients may participate in the following radiation therapy trials:

    • Node-positive patients may participate in the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group protocol MA.20, provided the requirements of the B-34 protocol continue to be met. (Node-negative B-34 patients may not participate in MA.20.)
    • Node-positive mastectomy patients may participate in Southwest Oncology Group protocol S9927, provided the requirements of the B-34 protocol continue to be met.
  • Patients must have an analysis of both estrogen and progesterone receptors on the primary tumor performed prior to randomization. Tumors will be defined as ER or progesterone receptor (PgR) positive if: 1) the Dextran-coated charcoal or sucrose-density gradient method shows them to have greater than or equal to 10 fmol/mg cytosol protein, or 2) if using individual laboratory criteria they can be shown to be positive by the enzyme immunoassay method (EIA) or immunocytochemical assay. "Marginal or borderline," results (i.e., those not definitively negative) will also be considered positive.
  • At the time of randomization, the patient must have had the following within the past 3 months: history and physical exam, a bone scan, thoracic and lumbar spine x-rays, and a chest x-ray. Within the past 12 months patients must have had a gynecologic exam (for women who have a uterus and who will be taking tamoxifen) and a bilateral mammogram.
  • At the time of randomization:

    • the postoperative absolute neutrophil count (ANC) must be greater than or equal to 1500/mm3 (or less than 1500/mm3 if, in the opinion of the investigator, this represents an ethnic or racial variation of normal);
    • the postoperative platelet count must be greater than or equal to 100,000;
    • there must be postoperative evidence of adequate hepatic function, i.e.,
    • total bilirubin at or below the upper limit of normal (ULN) for the laboratory; and
    • alkaline phosphatase less than 2.5 x the ULN; and
    • the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT)/ aspartate transaminase (AST) less than 1.5 x the ULN;
    • there must be postoperative evidence of adequate renal function (serum creatinine within or less than the laboratory's normal range).
  • Serum albumin and serum calcium must be within normal limits.
  • A patient with skeletal pain is eligible for inclusion in the study if bone scan and/or roentgenological examination fails to disclose metastatic disease. Suspicious findings must be confirmed as benign by x-ray, MRI, or biopsy.
  • Patients with prior nonbreast malignancies are eligible if they have been disease- free for greater than or equal to 5 years before randomization and are deemed at low risk for recurrence by their treating physicians. Patients with squamous or basal cell carcinoma of the skin that has been effectively treated, carcinoma in situ of the cervix that has been treated by surgery only, or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) of the ipsilateral or contralateral breast treated by hormone therapy and/or surgery only are eligible, even if these were diagnosed within 5 years before randomization.
  • Patients must have a Zubrod performance status of 0, 1, or 2.
  • Special conditions for eligibility of lumpectomy patients: Irradiation and surgery. Patients treated by lumpectomy and axillary node dissection (or no axillary dissection if sentinel node biopsy is negative) to be followed by breast radiation therapy must meet all the eligibility criteria in addition to the following:

    • Generally, lumpectomy should be reserved for tumors less than 5 cm. However, at the investigator's discretion, patients treated with lumpectomy for tumors greater than or equal to 5 cm are eligible.
    • The margins of the resected specimen must be histologically free of invasive tumor and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). For patients in whom pathologic examination demonstrates tumor present at the line of resection, additional operative procedures may be performed to obtain clear margins. This is permissible even if axillary dissection has been performed. Patients in whom tumor is still present at the resected margins after re-excision(s) must undergo total mastectomy to be eligible.

Ineligibility.

  • Significant non-malignant bone disease that is likely to interfere with the interpretation of bone x-rays.
  • Ulceration, erythema, infiltration of the skin or the underlying chest wall (complete fixation), peau d'orange, or skin edema of any magnitude. (Tethering or dimpling of the skin or nipple inversion should not be interpreted as skin infiltration. Patients with these conditions are eligible.)
  • Ipsilateral lymph nodes that on clinical examination are found to be fixed to one another or to other structures (cN2 disease).
  • Suspicious palpable nodes in the contralateral axilla or palpable supraclavicular or infraclavicular nodes, unless there is biopsy evidence that these are not involved with tumor.
  • Prior therapy for breast cancer, including irradiation, chemotherapy, biotherapy, and/or hormonal therapy, with the exception of tamoxifen. Tamoxifen may be given as adjuvant therapy before study entry, but only if it was started within 28 days before randomization. Patients who started tamoxifen within 28 days before randomization and who are being considered for chemotherapy must have their tamoxifen stopped at the start of chemotherapy.
  • Prior history of breast cancer, except LCIS.
  • Any sex hormonal therapy, e.g., birth control pills, ovarian hormonal replacement therapy, etc. (These patients are eligible only if this therapy is discontinued prior to randomization.) Exceptions: patients may use low-dose estrogen vaginal creams or Estring® for symptomatic vaginal dryness, raloxifene (or other selective estrogen receptor modulators [SERMs]) for the prevention of osteoporosis, and luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists/antagonists for the purpose of medical ovarian ablation as a component of adjuvant therapy for the breast cancer.
  • Patients currently taking alendronate (Fosamax®) or other bisphosphonates or calcitonin to treat or prevent osteoporosis are not eligible.
  • Non-malignant systemic disease (cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, etc.) that would preclude a patient from being subjected to any of the treatment options or would prevent prolonged follow-up.
  • Psychiatric or addictive disorders that would preclude obtaining informed consent.
  • Pregnancy or lactation at the time of proposed randomization. This protocol excludes pregnant or lactating women because the effects of clodronate on such women have not been studied fully.
  • Bilateral malignancy or a mass or mammographic abnormality in the opposite breast suspicious for malignancy unless there is biopsy proof that the mass is not malignant.
  • Special conditions for ineligibility of lumpectomy patients: Irradiation and surgery. The following patients will also be ineligible:

    • Patients with diffuse tumors (as demonstrated on mammography) that would not be considered surgically amenable to lumpectomy.
    • Patients treated with lumpectomy in whom there is another clinically dominant mass or mammographically suspicious abnormality within the ipsilateral breast remnant. Such a mass must be biopsied and demonstrated to be histologically benign prior to randomization or, if malignant, must be surgically removed with clear margins.
    • Patients in whom the margins of the resected specimen are involved with invasive tumor or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Additional surgical resections to obtain free margins are allowed. Patients in whom tumor is still present after the additional resection(s) must undergo mastectomy to be eligible.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00009945

Locations
United States, Arizona
CCOP - Mayo Clinic Scottsdale Oncology Program
Scottsdale, Arizona, United States, 85259-5404
United States, Florida
Mayo Clinic
Jacksonville, Florida, United States, 32224
United States, Hawaii
MBCCOP - Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii, United States, 96813
United States, Iowa
CCOP - Cedar Rapids Oncology Project
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, United States, 52403-1206
Siouxland Hematology-Oncology
Sioux City, Iowa, United States, 51101-1733
United States, Mississippi
Veterans Affairs Medical Center - Biloxi
Biloxi, Mississippi, United States, 39531-2410
United States, North Dakota
Medcenter One Health System
Bismarck, North Dakota, United States, 58501-5505
Altru Cancer Center
Grand Forks, North Dakota, United States, 58201
United States, Pennsylvania
CCOP - Geisinger Clinic and Medical Center
Danville, Pennsylvania, United States, 17822-2001
United States, South Dakota
Rapid City Regional Hospital
Rapid City, South Dakota, United States, 57709
United States, Tennessee
University of Tennessee Cancer Institute
Memphis, Tennessee, United States, 38103
Danville Radiation Therapy Center
Memphis, Tennessee, United States, 38104
United States, Texas
Harrington Cancer Center
Amarillo, Texas, United States, 79106
Veterans Affairs Medical Center - Amarillo
Amarillo, Texas, United States, 79106
United States, Vermont
Fletcher Allen Health Care - University Health Center Campus
Burlington, Vermont, United States, 05401
United States, Virginia
MBCCOP - Massey Cancer Center
Richmond, Virginia, United States, 23298-0037
United States, Washington
University of Washington School of Medicine
Seattle, Washington, United States, 98109
Sponsors and Collaborators
NSABP Foundation Inc
Southwest Oncology Group
North Central Cancer Treatment Group
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Norman Wolmark, MD NSABP Foundation Inc
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: NSABP Foundation Inc
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00009945     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NSABP B-34, SWOG-NSABP-B-34, NCCTG-NSABP-B-34, CDR0000068426
Study First Received: February 2, 2001
Last Updated: April 2, 2014
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government
United States: Food and Drug Administration
United States: Institutional Review Board
Canada: Health Canada

Keywords provided by NSABP Foundation Inc:
stage I breast cancer
stage II breast cancer

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Breast Neoplasms
Breast Diseases
Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Skin Diseases
Clodronic Acid
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Pharmacologic Actions
Physiological Effects of Drugs

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on November 24, 2014