A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial To Evaluate Intravenous Gamma Globulin in Children With Symptomatic HIV Infection Receiving Zidovudine

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00000720
First received: November 2, 1999
Last updated: May 22, 2012
Last verified: May 2012
  Purpose

To evaluate the clinical, immunologic, and virologic effects of oral zidovudine (AZT) plus intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) versus AZT plus placebo (albumin). It is estimated that by 1991, there may be 10,000 to 20,000 HIV-infected children in the United States. HIV infection in children is most often associated with symptomatic disease and poor prognosis. Treatment with antiviral therapy may be effective in changing the course of disease and decreasing mortality in this vulnerable population. AZT treatment has been shown to decrease mortality and the frequency of opportunistic infections in certain adult AIDS patients; therefore, it is likely that children may also benefit from this antiviral therapy. In addition, bacterial infections are frequently found in HIV-infected children. Because pooled human serum immunoglobulin, another name for antibodies, is effective in reducing bacterial infection in patients with defects of immunity, it may reduce the rate of bacterial infection in HIV-infected children as well. In this study, AZT will be administered together with IVIG to determine safety, tolerance, and efficacy of the combined treatment.


Condition Intervention Phase
HIV Infections
Drug: Globulin, Immune
Drug: Zidovudine
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Masking: Double-Blind
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial To Evaluate Intravenous Gamma Globulin in Children With Symptomatic HIV Infection Receiving Zidovudine

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Estimated Enrollment: 250
Study Completion Date: April 1993
Detailed Description:

It is estimated that by 1991, there may be 10,000 to 20,000 HIV-infected children in the United States. HIV infection in children is most often associated with symptomatic disease and poor prognosis. Treatment with antiviral therapy may be effective in changing the course of disease and decreasing mortality in this vulnerable population. AZT treatment has been shown to decrease mortality and the frequency of opportunistic infections in certain adult AIDS patients; therefore, it is likely that children may also benefit from this antiviral therapy. In addition, bacterial infections are frequently found in HIV-infected children. Because pooled human serum immunoglobulin, another name for antibodies, is effective in reducing bacterial infection in patients with defects of immunity, it may reduce the rate of bacterial infection in HIV-infected children as well. In this study, AZT will be administered together with IVIG to determine safety, tolerance, and efficacy of the combined treatment.

The study includes 250 children, 3 months to 12 years of age. All participants receive oral AZT. IVIG or intravenous placebo is administered every 28 days. Patients are followed for the development of serious bacterial infection, as well as for a number of factors relating to safety, tolerance, progression of disease, and survival. This is an outpatient study conducted over a minimum 100-week period. The children are evaluated every 2 weeks for the first 8 weeks, and monthly thereafter.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   3 Months to 12 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria

Concurrent Medication:

Allowed:

  • Benadryl and/or acetaminophen may be given before and during intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion in patients demonstrating mild reactions during infusion.
  • Acetaminophen for short-term fever and pain.
  • Zidovudine (AZT).
  • Steroids.
  • Oral or systemic (swish and swallow) nystatin.
  • Maintenance therapy for fungal disease or tuberculosis.
  • Prophylaxis for a previous episode of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) including the use of trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole (TMP / SMX). The dosage is specified as TMP 75 mg/m2 twice daily 3 times a week and SMX 375 mg/m2 twice daily 3 times a week.
  • Recommended:
  • Children with AIDS and / or CD4 count = or < 500 cells/mm3 should receive primary PCP prophylaxis as described.

Concurrent Treatment:

Allowed:

  • Blood transfusion for hemoglobin < 8 g/dl and hematocrit < 24 percent or bone marrow suppression.
  • Supplemental oxygen with a prestudy PaO2 < 70 mmHg.

Children must have one or more of the indicator diseases of AIDS; however, there must be an absence of acute opportunistic infection and an absence of bacterial infection requiring treatment at the time of entry into the study.

  • Children with lymphoid interstitial proliferation (LIP) are excluded from enrollment unless they have had additional AIDS-defining opportunistic infections, meet ARC criteria, have had two or more serious bacterial infections in the 12 months prior to study entry, have evidence of HIV encephalopathy, or are currently on supplemental oxygen and steroids with a pre-treatment PaO2 < 70 mm Hg.
  • Children with concurrent LIP and ARC are eligible for inclusion. Thrombocytopenia is an exclusion except if it is HIV-associated.
  • Children randomized prior to their 13th birthday are eligible.
  • All lab values must be within 4 weeks of study entry.

Prior Medication:

Allowed:

  • Zidovudine (AZT).

Exclusion Criteria

Co-existing Condition:

Patients with the following will be excluded:

  • Lymphoid interstitial proliferation (LIP) not requiring steroids and supplemental oxygen or with other lymphoproliferative diseases as their sole clinical evidence of HIV infection.
  • Known hypersensitivity to immunoglobulin.
  • Active HIV thrombocytopenia requiring IVIG therapy.

Concurrent Medication:

Excluded:

  • Chronic acetaminophen.
  • Drugs that are metabolized by hepatic glucuronidation should not be used for more than 24 hours without notifying the study physician.
  • Antibacterial prophylaxis for otitis, sinusitis, or urinary tract infection.
  • Prophylaxis treatment for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prior to the first episode of laboratory-documented PCP.
  • Immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy required for active HIV thrombocytopenia.

Patients with the following will be excluded:

  • Lymphoid interstitial proliferation (LIP) not requiring steroids and supplemental oxygen or with other lymphoproliferative diseases as their sole clinical evidence of HIV infection.
  • Known hypersensitivity to immunoglobulin.
  • Active HIV thrombocytopenia requiring IVIG therapy.
  • Inability to establish or maintain intravenous access.
  • Lack of parental or guardian authorization for intravenous access.

Prior Medication:

Excluded within 4 weeks of study entry:

  • Any other experimental therapy.
  • Other antiretroviral agents.
  • Drugs which cause prolonged neutropenia or significant nephrotoxicity.
  • Immunoglobulins.
  • Immunomodulating agents.

Active alcohol or drug abuse.

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00000720

  Show 51 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Investigators
Study Chair: Spector, SA
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000720     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: ACTG 051, 11025
Study First Received: November 2, 1999
Last Updated: May 22, 2012
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections
Placebos
Infusions, Intravenous
Gamma-Globulins
Combined Modality Therapy
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Zidovudine
Bacterial Infections
Immunization, Passive

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Infection
Communicable Diseases
HIV Infections
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Slow Virus Diseases
Zidovudine
Gamma-Globulins
Antibodies
Immunoglobulins
Antimetabolites
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Pharmacologic Actions
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Anti-HIV Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on September 22, 2014