Aerosols in the Treatment of Asymptomatic Pneumocystis Pneumonia: A Pilot Study Assessing the Effectiveness of Aerosolized Pentamidine as Treatment of Subclinical Pneumocystis Infection in Patients With No Clinical Symptoms

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00000707
First received: November 2, 1999
Last updated: March 28, 2012
Last verified: March 2012
  Purpose

To confirm the ability of pulmonary (lung) function testing (PFT) to detect Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) before the development of clinical symptoms and to determine if pentamidine (PEN), a drug used in treating PCP, can be given effectively as an aerosol (inhaled mist). Other goals include the measurement of the actual amount of PEN that reaches the lung, and to determine if close clinical observation is safer and as effective as drug therapy for the prevention of subsequent episodes of PCP.

Many AIDS patients develop PCP, but the effectiveness of early diagnosis and treatment of PCP is not known. The effectiveness of PEN may be improved if treatment is begun when the parasite burden (the number of organisms in the lung) is still small, and before respiratory symptoms appear. If PFT of HIV-infected patients is able to identify patients in the early stages of infection, outpatient treatment of these patients offers a possible alternative to the expense and toxicity of continuous preventive therapy of all high-risk patients.


Condition Intervention
Pneumonia, Pneumocystis Carinii
HIV Infections
Drug: Pentamidine isethionate

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Aerosols in the Treatment of Asymptomatic Pneumocystis Pneumonia: A Pilot Study Assessing the Effectiveness of Aerosolized Pentamidine as Treatment of Subclinical Pneumocystis Infection in Patients With No Clinical Symptoms

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Estimated Enrollment: 20
Study Completion Date: June 1991
Detailed Description:

Many AIDS patients develop PCP, but the effectiveness of early diagnosis and treatment of PCP is not known. The effectiveness of PEN may be improved if treatment is begun when the parasite burden (the number of organisms in the lung) is still small, and before respiratory symptoms appear. If PFT of HIV-infected patients is able to identify patients in the early stages of infection, outpatient treatment of these patients offers a possible alternative to the expense and toxicity of continuous preventive therapy of all high-risk patients.

Patients are treated with aerosolized PEN on an outpatient basis. The aerosol therapy is given by a respiratory therapist 5 times a week, for a total of 21 days of treatment. In addition, patients participate in two radioactive aerosol studies in which the patient inhales a radioactive gas while sitting with his/her back against a gamma camera. The resulting picture outlines the lungs. Then the gas is exhaled and the patient breathes an aerosol of PEN. This mist contains a single dose of PEN mixed with a small amount of radioactivity (99mTc-pertechnetate). The gamma camera determines where the particles deposit in the lungs. The radioactive exposure is equivalent to a typical x-ray of the ribs. Patients also undergo diagnostic bronchoscopy with lavage, and PFT. Blood is drawn to measure the blood level of PEN. Patients are followed (clinical exams and PFT's) for 6 months after the end of therapy. Prophylaxis for PCP is allowed during the 6-month follow-up.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   13 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria

Concurrent Treatment:

Allowed during aerosolization:

Metaproterenol or albuterol to treat bronchospasm.

Patients must have:

  • HIV infection confirmed by ELISA, HIV culture, or p24 antigenemia.
  • Suspected subclinical Pneumocystis carinii infection as detected by > 10 percent change in lung volumes and/or diffusing capacity indicative of progressive restrictive disease as detected by monthly screening pulmonary function tests (PFT's). Patients will be afebrile and have no respiratory signs or symptoms of clinical disease. Morphologic confirmation of pneumocysts will be determined by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed 24 hours after the initial aerosol inhalation. If the BAL is negative for pneumocysts, the patient will be withdrawn from this protocol and will be followed per the screening PFT protocol at Stony Brook.
  • Diagnostic bronchoscopy and BAL must be performed within 2 weeks of detection of > 10 percent change in PFTs.
  • Ability and willingness to sign informed consent.

Prior Medication:

Allowed:

  • Primary prophylaxis with agents active against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), but no more than 5 patients may have received prior prophylaxis with aerosolized pentamidine.
  • Zidovudine.

Exclusion Criteria

Co-existing Condition:

Patients with the following conditions or symptoms are excluded:

  • History of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP).
  • Development of respiratory signs and/or symptoms in the interval between detection of pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormality and the time of initial aerosol deposition.
  • Dyspnea, cough, or bronchospasm that prevents cooperation with aerosol administration.
  • History of a major adverse reaction to pentamidine defined by absolute neutropenia, < 750 polymorphonuclear leukocytes plus bands; thrombocytopenia, < 40000 platelets; creatinine rise, > 3.0 mg/dl; liver function abnormalities, SGOT or SGPT > 5 x normal; hypoglycemia, < 50 mg/dl; rash, exfoliative or mucositis; cough, unremitting cough or bronchospasm uncontrolled by bronchodilator preventing > 50 percent of dose delivered for > 2 days.

Concurrent Medication:

Excluded:

  • Zidovudine.

Patients unable to cooperate with aerosol administration are excluded.

Prior Medication:

Excluded:

- Another antiprotozoal regimen for this episode. Unable to complete therapy or follow-up for social reasons in the opinion of the investigator.

  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00000707

Locations
United States, New York
SUNY - Stony Brook
Stony Brook, New York, United States, 11794
Sponsors and Collaborators
Investigators
Study Chair: Smaldone G
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications:
Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000707     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: ACTG 048, 11022
Study First Received: November 2, 1999
Last Updated: March 28, 2012
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Respiratory Function Tests
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections
Pneumonia, Pneumocystis carinii
Pentamidine
Lung
HIV Seropositivity
Drug Evaluation
Administration, Inhalation
Aerosols
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Pneumonia
Pneumonia, Pneumocystis
Pneumocystis Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Slow Virus Diseases
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Respiratory Tract Infections
Lung Diseases, Fungal
Mycoses
Pentamidine
Antifungal Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Pharmacologic Actions
Antiprotozoal Agents
Antiparasitic Agents
Trypanocidal Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 24, 2014