Computerized Tailored Intervention for Behavioral Sequelae of PTSD in Veterans (CTI)
This project assesses the usability and feasibility of a multi-behavioral computerized, tailored intervention (CTI) or expert system delivered via the Internet for veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms. Three behavioral health risk factors, (1) smoking, (2) depression, and (3) stress, that are associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), are included in the Computerized, Tailored Intervention (CTI) system. The project adapts and modifies an existing CTI system built on the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to make it relevant to a veteran population. The system has been successfully utilized with general adult populations. The study utilizes methods that are characteristic of a product development project. Each of the four project phases are sequential and build upon the results of the previous phase. Phase 1 focuses on the review of current CTI programs on smoking cessation, stress management, and depression prevention, and integrating them into a multi-behavioral program for application with veterans. Phase 2 includes the development and adaptation of text-based feedback messages and multimedia components for smoking cessation, stress management, and depression prevention. Initial testing of the modified CTI programs commences in Phase 3. Cognitive and usability testing with veterans are performed, and additional modifications to the behavioral modules are made based on the test results. Phase 4 focuses on a feasibility study to test the multi-behavioral CTI system with veterans online.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Behavioral: Multibehavioral, Computerized Tailored Intervention STR2IVE
|Study Design:||Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Health Services Research
|Official Title:||Computerized Tailored Intervention for Behavioral Sequelae of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans|
- PTSD Symptom Checklist-Military ([PCL-M], Weathers et al., 1993) [ Time Frame: Change in PCL-M from baseline/30-60 day follow-ups, to that measured at final follow-up (90-120 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Developed by researchers at the VA National Center for PTSD, PCL is a self-report questionnaire that consists of 17 questions that map directly onto DSM-IV criteria for PTSD. Respondents are asked how often they have been bothered by each symptom in the past month on a 5-point Likert scale (1=not at all to 5=extremely). Internal consistency coefficients were high for the total scale (.97) and for each subscale (.92 - .93). Test-retest reliability over 2-3 days was .96.
- Quality of Life Scale ([QOLS], Flanagan, 1978, 1982) [ Time Frame: Baseline; 30-60 days; and 90-120 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The QOLS contains 16 items that represent five conceptual domains of quality of life. QOLS was developed with more consideration to cultural diversity and individual perspectives than other commonly used measures. It uses a unique 7-item Likert scale that allows responses regarding different aspects of life to range from "delightful" to "terrible". Both the original 15-item QOLS satisfaction scale and the 16-item version used in this study were found to be internally consistent with alpha from .82 to .92 and showed high test-retest reliability over 3-weeks (r = 0.78 to r = 0 .84).
- The Perceived Stress Scale ([PSS] Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983) [ Time Frame: Baseline; 30-60 days; and 90-120 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The PSS is the most widely used psychological instrument for measuring the perception of stress. It is a 10-item questionnaire that measures an individual's subjective evaluation the stressfulness of situations in their life in the past month. Items are designed to tap how unpredictable, uncontrollable, and overloaded respondents find their lives. The items are of a general nature and relatively free of content specific to any subpopulation. Internal consistency reliability of the PSS is moderate (Cronbach alpha coefficient =.78) and it has good test-re-test reliability.
- Patient Health Questionnaire ([PHQ-8], Kroenke & Spitzer, 2002; Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999) [ Time Frame: Baseline; 30-60 days; and 90-120 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The PHQ-9 is the self-administered depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire that assesses common mental disorders. Eight of the 9 items in the scale are included in the Depression Prevention Assessment and is also known as the PHQ-8. Item 9, which assesses suicidality has been omitted in the online version. The PHQ-8 has a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 99% for scores 15 and above in diagnosing major depression, with a positive predictive value of 94%.
|Study Start Date:||July 2011|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||April 2012|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||February 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Behavioral: Multibehavioral, Computerized Tailored Intervention STR2IVE
This proof of concept project develops and pilot tests a viable Internet-based intervention to assist veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms to progress toward changing negative health behaviors that are associated with PTSD and are often difficult to change. Most commercially available CTIs and software applications have limited impact, because of the lack of theory-driven material and empiricism. The proposed CTI is supported by more than 30 years of scientific evidence, and uses the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) as the theoretical basis for generating personalized interventions (Prochaska & Velicer, 1997; Velicer, Prochaska, & Redding, 2006). The TTM is ideally suited to those who are resistant to change and unlikely to take action in the near future, as well as those prone to relapse.
The intervention will be primarily targeted at negative coping strategies that confound or exacerbate Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms and hinder progress toward remission. Progress in a Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) conceptual framework may be defined as movement from one TTM stage of change to the next level of the change process, rather than the elimination or significant reduction of smoking, depression, or stress per se. The CTI system that will be modified during this project has been empirically tested and validated with a general population and has demonstrated significant outcomes for the three proposed modules — smoking cessation, depression prevention, and stress management. The CTI system provides an intervention that emphasizes advancement through the processes of change at one's own pace as the focus of project, rather than the linear progression through a structured behavior change program to achieve changes in the undesired behaviors.
Hypothesis 1: The structure and TTM-based content of the adapted Smoking Cessation, Depression Prevention, and Stress Management systems and consequent CTI will be appropriate for veterans.
Primary Aim 1: To modify TTM-based Smoking Cessation, Depression Prevention, and Stress Management behavioral intervention modules, originally developed for general adult populations, to be appropriate and relevant for veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms.
Secondary Aim 1a: To conceptualize the CTI program's approach, content, and design based on input from a diverse sample of military veterans and expert consultants.
Hypothesis 2: A multi-behavioral CTI can be successfully implemented with veterans who have Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms
Primary Aim 2: To demonstrate that a multi-behavioral CTI can be successfully implemented with veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms.
Secondary Aim 2a: To conduct usability interviews with veterans to ensure that the target population can navigate through the computerized intervention and understand the intervention content.
Secondary Aim 2b: To demonstrate the feasibility of CTI by: a) recruiting veterans to the project and delivery of the proposed intervention; and b) assessing the acceptability and perceived usefulness of the intervention from the perspective of veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms.
Secondary Aim 2c: To demonstrate feasibility of CTI to increase motivation to change targeted behaviors, i.e., smoking cessation, depression prevention, and stress management.
Secondary Aim 2d: To demonstrate positive change in assessment outcomes for Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms, depression, quality of life, and perceived stress.
|United States, Hawaii|
|VA Pacific Island Health Care System|
|Honolulu, Hawaii, United States, 96819|
|Principal Investigator:||James L Spira, Ph.D.||National Center for PTSD Pacific Islands Division|