Efficacy and Safety of Concentration-controlled Everolimus to Eliminate or to Reduce Tacrolimus Compared to Tacrolimus in de Novo Liver Transplant Recipients (RAD)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Novartis ( Novartis Pharmaceuticals )
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00622869
First received: February 13, 2008
Last updated: May 17, 2013
Last verified: May 2013
  Purpose

This trial was designed to address important issues that impact recipients of liver allografts as well as clinicians, ie, renal function, reduction or discontinuation of tacrolimus early post-transplantation, and progression rate of fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive patients.


Condition Intervention Phase
Liver Transplantation
Drug: Tacrolimus (reduced tacrolimus)
Drug: Tacrolimus (tacrolimus elimination)
Drug: Tacrolimus (tacrolimus control)
Drug: Everolimus (reduced tacrolimus)
Drug: Everolimus (tacrolimus elimination)
Drug: Corticosteroids
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A 24 Month, Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Concentration-controlled Everolimus to Eliminate or to Reduce Tacrolimus Compared to Tacrolimus in de Novo Liver Transplant Recipients

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Novartis:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Incidence Rate of Composite Efficacy Failure From Randomization to Month 12 [ Time Frame: Randomization to Month 12 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Composite efficacy failure was defined as treated biopsy proven acute rejection (tBPAR), graft loss, or death. A BPAR was defined as an acute rejection confirmed by biopsy with a Rejection Activity Index (RAI) score ≥ 3. tBPAR was defined as a BPAR which was treated with anti-rejection therapy. The RAI is used to score liver biopsies with acute rejection and is composed of 3 categories (portal inflammation, bile duct inflammation damage, venous endothelial inflammation) each scored on a scale of 0 (absent) to 3 (severe) by a trained pathologist. The total RAI score = the sum of the scores of the 3 categories and ranges from 0 to 9, with a higher score indicating greater rejection. The graft was presumed to be lost on the day the patient was newly listed for a liver graft, they received a graft re-transplant, or they died.

    The incidence rates of composite efficacy failure were estimated with a Kaplan-Meier product-limit formula.



Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Incidence Rate of Composite Efficacy Failure From Randomization to Month 24 [ Time Frame: Randomization to Month 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Composite efficacy failure was defined as treated biopsy proven acute rejection (tBPAR), graft loss, or death.

    The incidence rates of composite efficacy failure were estimated with a Kaplan-Meier product-limit formula.


  • Incidence Rate of Treated Biopsy Proven Acute Rejection (tBPAR) at Months 12 and 24 [ Time Frame: Randomization to Month 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    tBPAR was defined as an acute rejection confirmed by biopsy with a Rejection Activity Index (RAI) score ≥ 3, which was treated with anti-rejection therapy. Liver biopsies were collected for all cases of suspected acute rejection preferably within 24 hours, at the latest within 48 hours, whenever clinically possible. The RAI is used to score liver biopsies with acute rejection and is composed of 3 categories (portal inflammation, bile duct inflammation damage, venous endothelial inflammation) each scored on a scale of 0 (absent) to 3 (severe) by a trained pathologist. The total RAI score = the sum of the scores of the 3 categories and ranges from 0 to 9, with a higher score indicating greater rejection. The graft was presumed to be lost on the day the patient was newly listed for a liver graft, they received a graft re-transplant, or they died.

    The incidence rates of tBPAR were estimated with a Kaplan-Meier product-limit formula.


  • Change in Renal Function From Randomization to Months 12 and 24 [ Time Frame: Randomization to Month 24 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Change in renal function was assessed by the estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) using the abbreviated (4 variables) Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD-4) formula which was developed by the MDRD Study Group and has been validated in patients with chronic kidney disease. The MDRD-4 formula used for the eGFR calculation is: eGFR (mL/min/1.73m^2) = 186.3*(C^-1.154)*(A^-0.203)*G*R, where C is the serum concentration of creatinine (mg/dL), A is age (years), G=0.742 when gender is female, otherwise G=1, R=1.21 when race is black, otherwise R=1.

    The changes in renal function were analyzed via analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with treatment, pre-transplant hepatitis C virus status and randomization eGFR as covariates. Based on these ANCOVA analyses, the least-squares mean and standard errors of change were reported.



Enrollment: 719
Study Start Date: January 2008
Study Completion Date: April 2012
Primary Completion Date: April 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Everolimus + reduced tacrolimus
Low dose tacrolimus (tacrolimus reduced) + everolimus + corticosteroids.
Drug: Tacrolimus (reduced tacrolimus)
After everolimus whole blood trough levels were confirmed to be in the target range of 3-8 ng/mL, tacrolimus tapering began, achieving a target tacrolimus whole blood trough level of 3-5 ng/mL by 3 weeks after randomization, a level which was maintained for the duration of the study.
Other Names:
  • FK-506
  • fujimycin
  • Prograf
  • Advagraf
  • Protopic
Drug: Everolimus (reduced tacrolimus)
Everolimus was started within 24 hours of randomization at a dose of 1.0 mg twice a day (bid, 2 mg daily dose). The dose was adjusted to maintain everolimus trough blood levels between 3-8 ng/mL for the duration of the study.
Other Names:
  • RAD-001
  • Zortress
  • Certican
  • Afinitor
Drug: Corticosteroids
For patients in all groups, corticosteroids were initiated at or prior to the time of transplantation according to local practice. Corticosteroids could be used for the duration of the study but could not be eliminated before Month 6.
Experimental: Tacrolimus elimination
Low-dose tacrolimus (until Month 4, then tacrolimus eliminated) + everolimus + corticosteroids.
Drug: Tacrolimus (tacrolimus elimination)
After everolimus whole blood trough levels were confirmed to be in the target range of 3-8 ng/mL, tacrolimus tapering began, achieving a target tacrolimus whole blood trough level of 3-5 ng/mL by 3 weeks after randomization. Tacrolimus elimination was started beginning at Month 4. Tacrolimus was tapered after everolimus whole blood trough levels were within the target range of 6-10 ng/mL. Tacrolimus was completely eliminated by the end of Month 4.
Other Names:
  • FK-506
  • fujimycin
  • Prograf
  • Advagraf
  • Protopic
Drug: Everolimus (tacrolimus elimination)
Everolimus was started within 24 hours of randomization at a dose of 1.0 mg twice a day (bid, 2 mg daily dose). The dose was adjusted to maintain everolimus trough blood levels between 3-8 ng/mL until Month 4; beginning with Month 4, the dose was adjusted to maintain everolimus trough blood levels between 6-10 ng/mL.
Other Names:
  • RAD-001
  • Zortress
  • Certican
  • Afinitor
Drug: Corticosteroids
For patients in all groups, corticosteroids were initiated at or prior to the time of transplantation according to local practice. Corticosteroids could be used for the duration of the study but could not be eliminated before Month 6.
Active Comparator: Tacrolimus control
Control dose tacrolimus + corticosteroids.
Drug: Tacrolimus (tacrolimus control)
Tacrolimus trough levels were targeted to be maintained at 8-12 ng/mL until Month 4. At Month 4, tacrolimus whole blood trough levels were decreased to a target trough level of 6-10 ng/mL for the remainder of the study.
Other Names:
  • FK-506
  • fujimycin
  • Prograf
  • Advagraf
  • Protopic
Drug: Corticosteroids
For patients in all groups, corticosteroids were initiated at or prior to the time of transplantation according to local practice. Corticosteroids could be used for the duration of the study but could not be eliminated before Month 6.

Detailed Description:

This 24-month study consisted of a screening period, a baseline period (3 to 7 days post-transplantation) followed by a run-in period that ended on the day of randomization at 30 days (± 5 days) post-transplantation. Patients were screened for eligibility prior to liver transplantation. Patients who had undergone successful liver transplantation were initiated on a tacrolimus-based regimen that included corticosteroids and entered the baseline period (between 3 and 7 days post-transplantation). At 30 (± 5) days post-transplantation, patients who met additional randomization inclusion/exclusion criteria were randomized into the study.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 70 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Ability and willingness to provide written informed consent and adhere to study regimen.
  • Recipients who are 18-70 years of age of a primary liver transplant from a deceased donor.
  • Recipients who have been initiated on an immunosuppressive regimen that contains corticosteroids and tacrolimus, 3-7 days post-transplantation.
  • Confirmed recipient hepatitis C virus (HCV) status at Screening (either by antibody or by PCR (polymerase chain reaction).
  • Allograft is functioning at an acceptable level by the time of randomization as defined by protocol specific laboratory values.
  • Abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimated glomerular filtration rate (MDRD eGFR) ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73m2. Results obtained within 5 days prior to randomization are acceptable, however, no sooner than Day 25 post-transplantation.
  • Verification of at least 1 tacrolimus trough level of ≥ 8 ng/mL in the week prior to randomization. Investigators should make adjustments in tacrolimus dosing to continue to target trough levels above 8 ng/mL prior to randomization.

Exclusion Criteria

  • Patients who are recipients of multiple solid organ or islet cell tissue transplants, or have previously received an organ or tissue transplant. Patients who have a combined liver-kidney transplant.
  • Recipients of a liver from a living donor, or of a split liver.
  • History of malignancy of any organ system within the past 5 years whether or not there is evidence of local recurrence or metastases, other than non-metastatic basal or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, or HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma) (see next criteria).
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma that does not fulfill Milan criteria (1 nodule ≤ 5 cm, 2-3 nodules all < 3 cm) at the time of transplantation as per explant histology of the recipient liver.
  • Any use of antibody induction therapy.
  • Patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drugs used on study or their class, or to any of the excipients.
  • Patients who are recipients of ABO incompatible transplant grafts.
  • Recipients of organs from donors who test positive for Hepatitis B surface antigen or HIV are excluded.
  • Patients who have any surgical or medical condition, which in the opinion of the investigator, might significantly alter the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of study drug.
  • Women of child-bearing potential (WOCBP).
  • Patients with any history of coagulopathy or medical condition requiring long-term anticoagulation which would preclude liver biopsy after transplantation. (Low dose aspirin treatment or interruption of chronic anticoagulant is allowed).

Other protocol-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria may apply.

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Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00622869

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Novartis Pharmaceuticals
Investigators
Study Director: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Novartis Pharmaceuticals
  More Information

No publications provided by Novartis

Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Novartis ( Novartis Pharmaceuticals )
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00622869     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CRAD001H2304, 2007-001821-85
Study First Received: February 13, 2008
Results First Received: April 2, 2013
Last Updated: May 17, 2013
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration
Italy: The Italian Medicines Agency

Keywords provided by Novartis:
Liver transplantation
everolimus
calcineurin inhibitors
tacrolimus
renal function
MDRD formula
progression of fibrosis

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Everolimus
Sirolimus
Tacrolimus
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Pharmacologic Actions
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
Antineoplastic Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Antifungal Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Anti-Bacterial Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 20, 2014