Preferred Treatment of Type 1.5 Diabetes

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research
GlaxoSmithKline
Information provided by:
University of Washington
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00194896
First received: September 14, 2005
Last updated: August 16, 2011
Last verified: August 2011
  Purpose

The purpose of this research was to test whether one treatment was superior over another in the management of type 1.5 diabetes. Specifically we tested recently diagnosed antibody positive type 2 diabetic patients to determine whether treatment with rosiglitazone results in greater preservation of beta cell function compared to treatment with glyburide.


Condition Intervention
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Drug: rosiglitazone
Drug: glyburide

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Rosiglitazone Intervention Study in Patients With Type 1.5 Diabetes

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by University of Washington:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Changes in Beta Cell Function Assessed by Fasting and Stimulated C-peptide Measured at 36 Months. [ Time Frame: 36 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Changes in beta cell function assessed by fasting and stimulated C-peptide measured at 36 months.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Patients Positive for T Cell Responses to Islet Proteins at 36 Months. [ Time Frame: 36 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of participants positive for T cell reactivity to islet proteins at 36 months.


Enrollment: 64
Study Start Date: February 2000
Study Completion Date: December 2008
Primary Completion Date: September 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: rosiglitazone
Rosiglitazone is an oral antidiabetic agent which acts primarily by increasing insulin sensitivity. The rosiglitazone treatment group commenced therapy with 4 mg once per day and increase to twice per day if adequate glycemic control was not achieved.
Drug: rosiglitazone
Tablet taken orally at a dosage of 4 mg once per day and increase to twice per day if adequate glycemic control was not achieved. Study drug was taken up to 3 years.
Other Name: Avandia
Active Comparator: glyburide
Glyburide is a sulfonylurea. Glyburide therapy was initiated with 2.5 mg in the morning or the patient was maintained on the dose they had been receiving prior to starting the study. This starting dose was raised by 2.5 in the evening and further up to a maximum of 10 mg twice a day if necessary to achieve desired glycemic control.
Drug: glyburide
Tablet taken orally, initially 2.5 mg in the morning or dose subject received prior to starting the study. Dosage was increased by 2.5 mg in the evening up to a maximum of 10 mg twice a day if necessary to achieve desired glycemic control. Study drug was taken up to 3 years.

  Hide Detailed Description

Detailed Description:

Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes have different underlying pathophysiologic processes. The disease process in classical Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. In contrast, the disease process in classical Type 2 diabetes is not autoimmune in nature, a decreased sensitivity to insulin action is central to the disease process, and a poorly understood but non-inflammatory beta cell lesion occurs which diminishes insulin secretion. In clinical practice, the diagnosis of Type 1 versus Type 2 diabetes is made phenotypically using variables such as age at onset, apparent abruptness of onset of hyperglycemia, presence of ketosis, degree of obesity (especially central and intra abdominal), prevalence of other autoimmune diseases, and apparent need for insulin replacement. This clinical distinction of Type 1 versus Type 2 diabetes is recognized to be imperfect.

There is also a third group of individuals, who phenotypically are usually like classic Type 2 diabetics but who are positive for one or more of the autoantibodies commonly seen in the Type 1 disease process, namely islet cell antibodies (ICA) and/or insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and/or autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD Ab) and/or autoantibodies to the tyrosine phosphatase islet cell autoantibody 512 (IA 2 Ab).

These patients, autoantibody positive [Ab(+)] Type 2 or Type 1.5 diabetes, were the focus of our study. Compared to antibody negative Type 2 diabetics, patients with Type 1.5 diabetes have a more rapid decline in beta cell function, fail sulfonylurea therapy and require insulin therapy earlier (4-13).

Hypothesis: Rosiglitazone treatment will ameliorate or slow the underlying disease process in antibody positive Type 2 diabetes.

Patients meeting the inclusion criteria came in for a baseline visit. The nature of the study was explained and informed consent obtained. A fasting blood sample was obtained for autoantibodies, glucose, C peptide of proinsulin molecule (C-peptide), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), genetic typing, and T lymphocyte (T cell) responses to islet antigens. The beta cell function test was performed. Patients were then randomized to either rosiglitazone or glyburide.

All patients were encouraged to perform self blood glucose monitoring twice per day, before breakfast and before dinner. The treatment goals for all patients was the same: before breakfast and before dinner blood sugar levels between 90-130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dI) and HbA1c of less then 7% without severe hypoglycemia. Patients unable to reach goal with monotherapy had metformin (initially) or acarbose (secondarily) added, as there is no evidence to suggest that either affect beta-cell function.

The rosiglitazone treatment group commenced therapy with 4 milligram (mg) once per day and increased to twice per day if adequate glycemic control was not achieved. For glyburide, therapy was initiated with 2.5 mg in the morning or the patient was maintained on the dose they had been receiving prior to starting the study. The starting dose was raised by 2.5 mg in the evening and further up to a maximum of 10 mg twice a day if necessary to achieve desired glycemic control.

If adequate control, HbA1c less than 7%, was not achieved on glyburide or rosiglitazone monotherapy, metformin was added and the dose gradually increased as needed and tolerated to a maximum of 1000 mg twice daily. If necessary, acarbose was also used up to a maximum dose of 100 mg thrice daily as needed and tolerated.

After initiation of the study, patients were seen at 1 month and then every 3 months for up to 3 years. Those patients randomized to rosiglitazone had the liver enzyme alanine transaminase (ALT) monitored every 2 months. In addition, telephone contact was utilized to achieve and maintain glycemic goals. Each participant was followed for up to 3 years. Drs. Chiu and Palmer coordinated the study. If the patient and his/her private physician prefer, the treatment protocol was implemented by the patient's private physician.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   35 Years to 69 Years
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age at onset of diabetes - 35-69 years old.
  • No history of ketonuria or ketoacidosis.
  • Not requiring insulin to achieve glycemic control.
  • Not receiving more than two oral hypoglycemic agents.
  • Not taking a thiazolidinedione agent.
  • HbA1c in established patients (on an oral hypoglycemia agent for over 4 months) of greater than 6% and under 10%.
  • Fasting c-peptide greater than or equal to 0.8 ng/ml.
  • Women must be either post-menopausal or on adequate birth control (i.e. oral contraceptives, tubal ligation, hysterectomy, condoms, or diaphragm) or use abstinence.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Patients with history of chronic pancreatitis or other secondary causes of diabetes.
  • Patients receiving systemic corticosteroids.
  • Patients with severe systemic illness (e.g. recent MI, CHF or cerebral vascular disease).
  • Creatinine greater than 1.4 or liver enzymes greater than 2 times the upper limits of normal.
  • Not able to adhere to the protocol.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00194896

Locations
United States, Washington
DVA Puget Sound Health Care System
Seattle, Washington, United States, 98108
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Washington
Seattle Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Research
GlaxoSmithKline
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Jerry P Palmer, MD Seattle Institute for Biomedical & Clinical Research, University of Washington, DVA Puget Sound Health Care System
  More Information

Publications:

Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Jerry P. Palmer, MD, Professor, Principal Investigator, University of Washington, Seattle Institute for Biomedical & Clinical Research
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00194896     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 16707-D, 496539-188;, 16707D
Study First Received: September 14, 2005
Results First Received: February 22, 2011
Last Updated: August 16, 2011
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by University of Washington:
type 2 diabetes mellitus
autoantibodies
islet proteins
rosiglitazone
glyburide
c-peptide

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Rosiglitazone
Glyburide
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Pharmacologic Actions

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 23, 2014