Nitazoxanide for the Treatment of Chronic Diarrhea in HIV Infected Children
Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is a parasite that can cause chronic diarrhea and is a significant problem for HIV infected children in developing countries. C. parvum infection can be treated with the drug nitazoxanide (NTZ). However, NTZ has not been tested in HIV infected children. The purpose of this study is to test the safety of NTZ in HIV infected children who have chronic diarrhea caused by C. parvum.
Study hypothesis: Twice-daily NTZ is safe and well tolerated in HIV infected infants, children, and adolescents with chronic diarrhea caused by C. parvum infection.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Non-Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||A Phase I/II Open Label Study of Nitazoxanide (NTZ) for the Treatment of Cryptosporidium Parvum in HIV Infected Infants, Children, and Adolescents|
- Safety as evaluated by Grade 4 or new Grade 3 adverse reactions before Day 56 that cannot be directly attributed to another cause and are considered treatment limiting
- area under the curve (AUC) of orally administered NTZ
- Safety as evaluated by Grade 4 or new Grade 3 adverse reactions during longer-term follow-up (six months after Day 56 under Step I) that cannot be directly attributed to another cause and are considered treatment limiting
|Study Completion Date:||May 2006|
C. parvum is a significant opportunistic infection in much of the developing world, where children may not have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy. There is currently no established therapy for chronic cryptosporidiosis in HIV infected children. The FDA has approved NTZ for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis diarrhea; however, there are no data on the safety and effectiveness of NTZ in HIV infected children. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety of different doses of NTZ in HIV infected children with chronic diarrhea caused by C. parvum.
In Step 1, participants will receive one of four different doses of NTZ. Participants will take NTZ twice a day for 56 days in either a liquid or pill form. All participants will be closely monitored for drug toxicity. There will be seven study visits; they will occur at study entry, Weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8, and Day 70. Study visits will include a physical exam and blood, urine, and stool collection. Pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling will be performed during four of the study visits. PK sampling requires the participants to take their morning NTZ doses while in the clinic; participants will undergo additional blood collection either before or after taking NTZ. At the end of the 56-day study period, participants who are experiencing a positive clinical benefit from NTZ and who have had no harmful side effects may choose to continue taking NTZ for an additional 24 weeks and enter Step 2. Participants who do not continue taking NTZ after Day 56 will be followed for 2 additional weeks.
|Stellenbosch Univ. CRS|
|Cape Town, South Africa, 7505|
|Siriraj Hospital Mahidol University CRS|
|Bangkok, Thailand, 10700|
|Study Chair:||Myron Levin, MD||Health Sciences Center, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado|