A Phase II Study of Belatacept (BMS-224818) With a Steroid-free Regimen in Subjects Undergoing Kidney Transplantation

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Bristol-Myers Squibb
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00455013
First received: March 30, 2007
Last updated: May 27, 2014
Last verified: May 2014
Results First Received: July 16, 2013  
Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized;   Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study;   Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment;   Masking: Open Label;   Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition: Disorder Related to Renal Transplantation
Interventions: Drug: Thymoglobulin
Drug: Belatacept
Drug: Sirolimus
Drug: Tacrolimus
Drug: Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF)

  Participant Flow
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Recruitment Details
Key information relevant to the recruitment process for the overall study, such as dates of the recruitment period and locations
First 6 months (July 2007 to October 2008) assessed acute rejection of the renal transplant up to that time. All outcome measures were also assessed at 12 months post transplantation. Participants who wished to continue into the long term extension (LTE) signed a new consent form and were evaluated at 24, 36, and 48 Months post transplantation.

Pre-Assignment Details
Significant events and approaches for the overall study following participant enrollment, but prior to group assignment
Epstein-Barr virus positive recipients of renal allograft from living or deceased donor. Excluded if panel reactive antibodies greater than, equal to (>=) 50 % or prior graft loss due to acute rejection. 93 participants randomized; 89 transplanted/treated: (1) fever on the day of surgery, (1) problem with allograft, and (2) withdrawal of consent.

Reporting Groups
  Description
Belatacept, Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) Thymoglobulin 1.5mg/kg for 4 days plus 4 corresponding doses of corticosteroids; intravenous infusion (IV) belatacept: 10 milligram per kilogram of weight (mg/kg) Day 1 (day of transplant) and Day 5, then every other week through Month 3 (Weeks 2,4,6,8,10,12), and then every 4 weeks through Month 6 (Weeks 16, 20, 24), after 6 months, 5 mg/kg every 4 weeks until 12 months; MMF (mycophenolate mofetil) 1g twice daily(BID). Participants were allowed to switch from MMF to sirolimus. Background immunosuppressive medications: methylprednisolone administered as 500, 250, 125, and 60 mg IV on Days 1, 2, 3, 4; thymoglobulin 1.5 mg/kg IV infusion on Days 1 (day of transplant), 2, 3, 4, up to maximum dose of 6 mg/kg.
Belatacept, Sirolimus Thymoglobulin 1.5mg/kg for 4 days plus 4 corresponding doses of corticosteroids; IV belatacept: 10 mg/kg Days 1 and 5, then every other week through Month 3 (Weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12), and then every 4 weeks through Month 6 (Weeks 16, 20, 24),after 6 months, 5 mg/kg every 4 weeks until Month 12; sirolimus 5 mg/day on Day 1 and continued through Day 2, dosing to be adjusted to keep pre-dose C0 (concentration at time zero after administration) levels at 7-12 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) for first 6 months, followed by 5 - 10 ng/mL until 12 months. Participants were allowed to switch from sirolimus to MMF. Background immunosuppressive medications: methylprednisolone was administered as 500, 250, 125, and 60 mg IV on Days 1, 2, 3, 4, up to maximum dose of 6 mg/kg.
Tacrolimus, MMF Comparator regimen: thymoglobulin 1.5mg/kg for 4 days plus 4 corresponding doses of corticosteroids; oral tacrolimus 0.1 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses with initial targeted trough level of 8-12 ng/mL for Days 1 - 30 with dose reduction to achieve 12 hour trough target of 5-10 ng/mL for 12 months; MMF 1g BID. Background immunosuppressive medications: methylprednisolone administered as 500, 250, 125, and 60 mg IV on Days 1, 2, 3, 4; thymoglobulin 1.5 mg/kg IV infusion on Days 1, 2, 3, 4 up to maximum dose of 6 mg/kg.

Participant Flow for 2 periods

Period 1:   Short Term Period
    Belatacept, Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF)     Belatacept, Sirolimus     Tacrolimus, MMF  
STARTED     33 [1]   26 [2]   30 [3]
COMPLETED     27 [4]   21 [5]   28 [6]
NOT COMPLETED     6     5     2  
Adverse Event                 2                 5                 0  
Withdrawal by Subject                 0                 0                 1  
Lack of Efficacy                 4                 0                 0  
Unspecified                 0                 0                 1  
[1] 35 randomized, 33 transplanted and treated.
[2] 27 randomized, 26 transplanted and treated.
[3] 31 randomized, 30 transplanted and treated
[4] 5 discontinued belatacept by Month 6 (1 more by Month 12), 2 switched from MMF to sirolimus.
[5] 5 discontinued belatacept by Month 6; 10 additional switched from sirolimus to MMF.
[6] 1 discontinued tacrolimus by Month 6 and 2 discontinued by Month 12 (1 more by Month 12)

Period 2:   Long Term Extension (LTE)
    Belatacept, Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF)     Belatacept, Sirolimus     Tacrolimus, MMF  
STARTED     27     19 [1]   27 [2]
COMPLETED     25     16     20  
NOT COMPLETED     2     3     7  
Adverse Event                 0                 1                 1  
Withdrawal by Subject                 1                 0                 1  
Death                 1                 1                 0  
No longer met criteria                 0                 0                 1  
Subject Request or refused                 0                 0                 3  
Poor non-compliance                 0                 1                 0  
non-specified                 0                 0                 1  
[1] 2 Participants chose not to enter the LTE.
[2] 1 Participant chose not to enter the LTE.



  Baseline Characteristics
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Population Description
Explanation of how the number of participants for analysis was determined. Includes whether analysis was per protocol, intention to treat, or another method. Also provides relevant details such as imputation technique, as appropriate.
All participants who received transplant and were treated with drug were analyzed up to Month 12 post transplant.

Reporting Groups
  Description
Belatacept, Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) Thymoglobulin 1.5mg/kg for 4 days plus 4 corresponding doses of corticosteroids; IV belatacept: 10 mg/kg Days 1 and 5, then every other week through Month 3 (Weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12), and then every 4 weeks through Month 6 (Weeks 16, 20, 24), after 6 months, 5 mg/kg every 4 weeks until Month 12; MMF 1g BID. Participants were allowed to switch from MMF to sirolimus.
Belatacept, Sirolimus Thymoglobulin 1.5mg/kg for 4 days plus 4 corresponding doses of corticosteroids; IV belatacept: 10 mg/kg Days 1 and 5, then every other week through Month 3 (Weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12), and then every 4 weeks through Month 6 (Weeks 16, 20, 24),after 6 months, 5 mg/kg every 4 weeks until Month 12; sirolimus 5 mg/day on Day 1 and continued through Day 2, dosing to be adjusted to keep pre-dose C0 (concentration at time zero after administration) levels at 7-12 ng/mL for first 6 months, followed by 5 - 10 ng/mL until Month 12. Participants were allowed to switch from sirolimus to MMF.
Tacrolimus, MMF Comparator regimen: thymoglobulin 1.5mg/kg for 4 days plus 4 corresponding doses of corticosteroids; oral tacrolimus 0.1 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses with initial targeted trough level of 8-12 ng/mL for Days 1 - 30 with dose reduction to achieve 12 hour trough target of 5-10 ng/mL for 12 months; MMF (mycophenolate mofetil) 1g BID.
Total Total of all reporting groups

Baseline Measures
    Belatacept, Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF)     Belatacept, Sirolimus     Tacrolimus, MMF     Total  
Number of Participants  
[units: participants]
  33     26     30     89  
Age  
[units: participants]
       
<=18 years     0     0     0     0  
Between 18 and 65 years     33     24     26     83  
>=65 years     0     2     4     6  
Age  
[units: years]
Mean ± Standard Deviation
  49.2  ± 11.1     52.7  ± 10.8     53.6  ± 13.2     51.7  ± 11.8  
Gender  
[units: participants]
       
Female     8     6     8     22  
Male     25     20     22     67  
Region of Enrollment  
[units: participants]
       
North America     22     16     20     58  
Europe     11     10     10     31  



  Outcome Measures
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1.  Primary:   Number of Participants With Acute Rejection (AR) of Transplant up to 6 Months Post Transplantation - Intent to Treat (ITT) Population   [ Time Frame: Day 1 to Month 6 post-transplantation ]

2.  Secondary:   Number of Participants With Acute Rejection of Transplant up to Month 12 Post Transplantation - Intent to Treat Population   [ Time Frame: Day 1 to Month 12 post transplantation ]

3.  Secondary:   Number of Participants With Graft Loss or Death up to Month 6 and Month 12 Post Transplantation - Intent to Treat Population   [ Time Frame: Day 1 to Month 6 and Month 12 post transplantation ]

4.  Secondary:   Number of Participants With Composite of Death, Graft Loss and Acute Rejection up to Month 6 - Intent to Treat Population   [ Time Frame: Day 1 up to Month 6 ]

5.  Secondary:   Number of Participants With Composite of Death, Graft Loss and Acute Rejection up to Month 12 - Intent to Treat Population   [ Time Frame: Day 1 up to Month 12 ]

6.  Secondary:   Number of Participants With Delayed Graft Function - Intent to Treat Population   [ Time Frame: From Day 1 up to and including Day 8 post transplantation ]

7.  Secondary:   Number of Participants With New Onset Diabetes Mellitus From Baseline to Month 12 Post Transplantation - Intent to Treat Population   [ Time Frame: Baseline to Month 12 ]

8.  Secondary:   Number of Participants Who Used Anti-hypertension Medications at Baseline and at 12 Months Post Transplantation - Intent to Treat Population   [ Time Frame: Baseline and Month 12 ]

9.  Secondary:   Mean Systolic, Diastolic and Arterial Blood Pressure at Baseline and Month 12 - Intent to Treat Population   [ Time Frame: Baseline and 12 months post transplantation ]

10.  Secondary:   Number of Participants Using Antihyperlipidemic Medications at Month 12 - Intent to Treat Population   [ Time Frame: Month 12 ]

11.  Secondary:   Mean Change From Baseline (BL) to Month 12 Post Transplantation in Lipid Values - Intent to Treat Population   [ Time Frame: Baseline to Month 12 ]

12.  Secondary:   Mean (Standard Deviation) in Calculated Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) mL/Min/1.73m^2 at Month 3, Month 6 and Month 12 Post Transplantation - Intent to Treat Population   [ Time Frame: Months 3, 6 and 12 post transplantation ]

13.  Secondary:   Number of Corticosteroid-free Participants at 6 and 12 Months Post Transplantation - Intent to Treat Population   [ Time Frame: Day 1 through Month 12 ]

14.  Secondary:   Number of Participants Who Were Corticosteroid-free at Months 6 and 12 and Number of Participants Who Were Both Calcineurin Inhibitor-free (CNI-free)and Corticosteroid-free at Months 6 and 12 Post Transplantation - Intent to Treat Population   [ Time Frame: Day 1 to Month 12 post transplantation ]

15.  Secondary:   Number of Participants With Acute Rejection of Transplant up to End of Month 48 Post Transplantation - Intent to Treat Population in Long Term Extension   [ Time Frame: End of Month 12 to end of Month 48 Post Transplantation ]

16.  Secondary:   Number of Participants With Graft Loss or Death at Months 24, 36, 48 Post Transplantation - Intent to Treat Population in Long Term Extension   [ Time Frame: End of Month 12 to end of Long Term Extension (Year 4) ]

17.  Secondary:   Mean (Standard Deviation) in Calculated Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) mL/Min/1.73m^2 at Months 24, 36 and 48 Post Transplantation - Intent to Treat Population in Long Term Extension   [ Time Frame: Months 24, 36 and 48 post transplantation ]

18.  Secondary:   Number of Corticosteroid-free Participants at Months 24, 36, 48 Post Transplantation - Intent to Treat Population in Long Term Extension   [ Time Frame: End of Month 12 to end of Long Term Extension (Year 4) ]

19.  Secondary:   Number of Participants Who Were Both Calcineurin Inhibitor-free (CNI-free)and Corticosteroid-free at Months 24, 36, 48 Post Transplantation - Intent to Treat Population in Long Term Extension   [ Time Frame: Months 24, 36, 48 ]

20.  Secondary:   Number of Participants Who Switched Between MMF and Sirolimus During Long Term Extension up to Study Completion   [ Time Frame: End of Month 12 to end of Study (Month 48) ]


  Serious Adverse Events
  Hide Serious Adverse Events

Time Frame From Day 1 to end of 48 Months post transplantation and study closure
Additional Description Total population of randomized participants in both short term period and long term extension.

Reporting Groups
  Description
Belatacept - MMF No text entered.
Belatacept - SIRO No text entered.
Tacrolimus - MMF No text entered.

Serious Adverse Events
    Belatacept - MMF     Belatacept - SIRO     Tacrolimus - MMF  
Total, serious adverse events        
# participants affected / at risk     25/33 (75.76%)     19/26 (73.08%)     22/30 (73.33%)  
Blood and lymphatic system disorders        
Febrile neutropenia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Neutropenia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     2/33 (6.06%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Anaemia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Leukopenia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Cardiac disorders        
Acute myocardial infarction † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Ventricular tachycardia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Ischaemic cardiomyopathy † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Atrial fibrillation † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Cardiac failure congestive † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Myocardial ischaemia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Pericardial effusion † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Cardiac failure † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Congestive cardiomyopathy † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Mitral valve stenosis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Gastrointestinal disorders        
Aphthous stomatitis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Diarrhoea † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     3/26 (11.54%)     2/30 (6.67%)  
Vomiting † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     2/33 (6.06%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Gastrointestinal inflammation † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Hiatus hernia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Impaired gastric emptying † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Small intestinal obstruction † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Abdominal wall haematoma † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Gastritis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Gastrointestinal amyloidosis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Inguinal hernia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Nausea † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
General disorders        
Pyrexia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     2/33 (6.06%)     2/26 (7.69%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Chills † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Hyperpyrexia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Hernia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Multi-organ failure † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Oedema peripheral † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Device malfunction † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Immune system disorders        
Secondary amyloidosis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Infections and infestations        
Cytomegalovirus viraemia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     1/26 (3.85%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Escherichia urinary tract infection † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Gastroenteritis viral † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Herpes zoster ophthalmic † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Splenic abscess † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Enterococcal infection † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Lobar pneumonia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Parotitis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Pulmonary tuberculosis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Cytomegalovirus colitis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Oral fungal infection † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Pyelonephritis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Device related infection † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Encephalitis herpes † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Osteomyelitis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Pneumonia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     1/26 (3.85%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Urinary tract infection enterococcal † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Viral infection † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Fungaemia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Pyelonephritis acute † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     2/33 (6.06%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Urinary tract infection † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     3/33 (9.09%)     0/26 (0.00%)     2/30 (6.67%)  
Urosepsis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     2/30 (6.67%)  
Appendicitis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Bacteraemia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Cytomegalovirus chorioretinitis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Herpes zoster † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Encephalitis fungal † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Urinary tract infection pseudomonal † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Abdominal abscess † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Cellulitis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Cytomegalovirus infection † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Gastroenteritis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Meningitis cryptococcal † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Pneumonia klebsiella † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Subcutaneous abscess † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications        
Graft dysfunction † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     2/30 (6.67%)  
Graft loss † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Femur fracture † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Incisional hernia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Abdominal wound dehiscence † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Toxicity to various agents † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Wound dehiscence † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Post procedural haemorrhage † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Hip fracture † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Seroma † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Wrist fracture † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Investigations        
Weight decreased † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Blood creatinine increased † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     2/33 (6.06%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Liver function test abnormal † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Body temperature increased † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Metabolism and nutrition disorders        
Fluid retention † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Hyponatraemia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Hypernatraemia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Diabetes mellitus † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Hyperkalaemia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Dehydration † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     2/26 (7.69%)     2/30 (6.67%)  
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders        
Osteonecrosis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Pain in extremity † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Rotator cuff syndrome † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Osteoarthritis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Intervertebral disc degeneration † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (incl cysts and polyps)        
Basal cell carcinoma † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     1/26 (3.85%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Prostate cancer † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Malignant melanoma in situ † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Squamous cell carcinoma † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     4/30 (13.33%)  
Benign neoplasm of thyroid gland † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Nervous system disorders        
Dizziness † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Convulsion † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Encephalopathy † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Lumbar radiculopathy † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Transient ischaemic attack † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Altered state of consciousness † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Balance disorder † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Cerebrovascular accident † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Psychiatric disorders        
Confusional state † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Renal and urinary disorders        
Renal artery thrombosis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Renal failure acute † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Renal tubular necrosis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Urinary fistula † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Pyelocaliectasis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Renal impairment † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Ureteric dilatation † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Obstructive uropathy † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Proteinuria † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Nephropathy toxic † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Renal vein thrombosis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Haematuria † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Hydronephrosis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     2/26 (7.69%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Tubulointerstitial nephritis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Ureteric stenosis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     2/30 (6.67%)  
Reproductive system and breast disorders        
Benign prostatic hyperplasia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Prostatitis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders        
Pleural effusion † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Pneumonia aspiration † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Dyspnoea exertional † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Obstructive airways disorder † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Pharyngeal ulceration † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Hypoxia † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Respiratory distress † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Atelectasis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Bronchiectasis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Dyspnoea † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     2/33 (6.06%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Respiratory failure † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Pulmonary embolism † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Pulmonary hypertension † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders        
Diabetic foot † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Vascular disorders        
Arteriovenous fistula † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Haematoma † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Hypertension † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Venous thrombosis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     0/26 (0.00%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Embolism venous † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     0/33 (0.00%)     0/26 (0.00%)     1/30 (3.33%)  
Deep vein thrombosis † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     1/26 (3.85%)     2/30 (6.67%)  
Lymphocele † 1      
# participants affected / at risk     1/33 (3.03%)     1/26 (3.85%)     0/30 (0.00%)  
Events were collected by systematic assessment
1 Term from vocabulary, MedDRA 15.0




  Other Adverse Events


  Limitations and Caveats
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Limitations of the study, such as early termination leading to small numbers of participants analyzed and technical problems with measurement leading to unreliable or uninterpretable data
Main limitations of this study include: small size (small number of participants in each treatment arm), the open-label nature of the trial, its exploratory nature, and the high rate of switches from sirolimus to MMF in one of the belatacept groups.


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