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Preventing the Development of Venous Insufficiency in Pregnant Women Through Use of Compression Stockings

This study is currently recruiting participants. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified February 2013 by Johns Hopkins University
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Sigvaris Corporation
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jennifer Heller, Johns Hopkins University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01793194
First received: February 14, 2013
Last updated: February 26, 2013
Last verified: February 2013

February 14, 2013
February 26, 2013
February 2012
June 2013   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
  • Incidence of varicose veins [ Time Frame: 8 weeks post-partum ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    In pregnant women who do not have varicose veins (Group 1): To quantify and compare the incidence of varicose veins between participants randomized to the compression stocking use group (Group 1A) and those randomized to the no compression stocking use group (Group 1B).
  • Incidence of superficial thrombophlebitis and DVT [ Time Frame: 8 weeks post-partum ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    In pregnant women who already have varicose veins (Group 2): To quantify and compare the incidence of superficial thrombophlebitis and DVT between those randomized to the compression stocking use group (Group 2A) and those randomized to the no compression stocking use group (Group 2B).
Same as current
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT01793194 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
Incidence of symptoms of venous insufficiency [ Time Frame: 8 weeks post-partum ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
For All Groups: To quantify and compare the incidence of symptoms of venous insufficiency in pregnant women between the treatment and control groups.
Same as current
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
Preventing the Development of Venous Insufficiency in Pregnant Women Through Use of Compression Stockings
Preventing the Development of Venous Insufficiency in Pregnant Women Through Use of Compression Stockings: A Randomized Pilot Study

Problem: Approximately 4 million live births occur in the United States each year. Pregnancy causes many physical changes in the mother, including venous distension, increased ability to form blood clots, and hormonal changes. Data suggest that these factors help cause venous insufficiency (when the veins do not adequately return blood from the extremities to the torso). As venous insufficiency progresses, complications follow, the most severe of which include superficial thrombophlebitis and deep venous thrombosis (DVT, or blood clots). Although the fear of DVT has been well publicized, its prevention and prevalence in pregnant women has not been well-studied.

The exact cause of venous insufficiency is not known. However, known risk factors include being female and hormonal changes associated with oral contraceptive use, certain hormone replacement medications, and pregnancy. Being pregnant places the mother at additional risk for developing venous insufficiency.

Compression stockings are used to manage the condition, but this is by no means standard of care despite their easy use and safety. The medical community's understanding of how compression stockings work is largely theoretical; however, it is believed that the compression works by preventing venous hypertension in the lower legs, thereby preventing venous insufficiency and its associated complications.

Research hypothesis: The investigators hypothesize that compression stocking use will be associated with lower incidence of varicose veins and, in those patients who already have varicose veins, lower incidence of complications associated with venous insufficiency. Further, the investigators believe that compression stocking use will be associated with a lower incidence or lessening of symptoms associated with venous insufficiency.

Importance: An undetected DVT can be fatal. Even if detected promptly, DVT is associated with long term health problems. Treatment of a DVT requires anticoagulation which can be risky to both mother and fetus. The prevention or reduction of DVT in pregnant women through use of compression stockings would revolutionize their care. Further, this intervention is safe and noninvasive.

The investigators propose to conduct a randomized, pilot study comparing pregnant women without and with varicose veins randomized to wear compression stockings to a similar group of participants randomized to no compression stocking use.

Problem: There are approximately four million live births in the United States annually. Pregnancy induces multisystemic physiologic changes in the mother as her body accommodates the growing fetus. Known physiologic alterations include venous distension, hypercoagulability, and hormonal changes. Anecdotal data suggests that these particular factors precipitate the development of venous insufficiency. As venous insufficiency progresses, complications ensue, the most severe of which include superficial thrombophlebitis and deep venous thrombosis. Although the fear of deep venous thrombus (DVT) has been well publicized, its prevention and actual prevalence in the pregnant population has not been adequately studied.

The precise mechanism of venous insufficiency has yet to be elucidated. However, several known risk factors exist. They include female gender and hormonal changes associated with elevated progesterone levels such as oral contraceptive use, certain exogenous hormonal replacement medications, and pregnancy. Clearly, the pregnant state places the mother at additive risk for subsequent development of venous insufficiency.

Medical management of venous insufficiency consists of compression stocking use, and some physicians do recommend their use to pregnant patients. However, this practice is by no means standard of care, despite its noninvasive application and safety. The precise mechanism through which compression stockings work is largely theoretical; however, it is believed that the extrinsic graduated compression works by preventing venous hypertension in the distal lower extremity, thereby preventing venous insufficiency and its associated complications.

Research hypothesis: The investigators hypothesize that compression stocking use will be associated with lower incidence of varicose veins and, in those patients who already have varicose veins, lower incidence of complications associated with venous insufficiency, particularly superficial thrombophlebitis and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Further, the investigators believe that compression stocking use will be associated with a lower incidence or lessening of symptoms associated with venous insufficiency, such as edema, fatigue, venous stasis dermatitis, and venous neuropathy (burning).

Importance: While some may feel that varicose veins, edema, fatigue, and other outcomes are unimportant, an undetected DVT is commonly a fatal event. Even if detected promptly, DVT is associated with long term morbidity, such as post thrombotic syndrome which can occur in up to 30% of those patients diagnosed with a DVT. Treatment of a DVT requires anticoagulation which, although essential, carries significant risk to both mother and fetus. The prevention or reduction in incidence of DVT in this population merely with compression stocking use would revolutionize care in the pregnant population. Further, this intervention is safe and noninvasive.

The investigators propose to conduct a randomized, pilot study comparing pregnant women without (Group 1) and with (Group 2) varicose veins randomized to wear compression stockings (Treatment Subgroup A) to a similar group of participants randomized to no compression stocking use (Control Subgroup B).

Interventional
Phase 4
Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Venous Insufficiency
Other: Compression Stockings
20-30mmg Hg maternity pantyhose compression stockings
  • No Intervention: No Stocking Use
    For pregnant women randomized to the no stocking use group, no compression stockings will be worn.
  • Experimental: Compression Stocking Use
    Patients who are randomized to the stocking use group (Treatment Subgroup A) will be formally measured for their stockings by a certified stocking fitter, given (at no charge) two pair of 20-30mmg Hg maternity pantyhose compression stockings, and will undergo a brief tutorial regarding how to put the stockings on. Each patient will be instructed to wear the stockings on a daily basis, during the day.
    Intervention: Other: Compression Stockings
Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruiting
80
September 2013
June 2013   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Pregnant women 18-45 years of age.
  • Fetal gestation between 8-20 weeks.
  • Patient is seeking care for the pregnancy at one of the study locations (Johns Hopkins East Baltimore Campus, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, and Johns Hopkins at White Marsh).
  • Ability to complete informed consent and willingness to comply with protocol (return for all follow-up visits & participate in phone interviews).

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Inability to wear compression stockings.
  • Women who currently have been prescribed to wear compression stockings by a medical professional.
  • Chronic dermatological condition (i.e. psoriasis).
  • Chronic deep vein thrombus or chronic phlebitis.
  • In women with varicose veins: Presence of primary outcome (superficial thrombophlebitis or DVT) on first visit ultrasound.
Female
18 Years to 45 Years
No
Contact: Kimiko Tsuchiya, MHS 410-955-8295 ktsuchi1@jhmi.edu
United States
 
NCT01793194
NA_00047720
No
Jennifer Heller, Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
Sigvaris Corporation
Principal Investigator: Jennifer Heller, MD Div. of Vascular Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Johns Hopkins University
February 2013

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP