American Ginseng to Improve HIV-Associated Fatigue: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Design, Multiple-Dose Clinical Trial

This study is currently recruiting participants. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified February 2013 by Johns Hopkins University
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Adriana Andrade, Johns Hopkins University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01500096
First received: December 14, 2011
Last updated: February 11, 2013
Last verified: February 2013

December 14, 2011
February 11, 2013
February 2013
February 2014   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Change in Fatigue Severity Score [ Time Frame: From baseline to the end of four weeks of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Change in Fatigue Severity Score from baseline to end of four weeks of treatment
Fatigue Severity Scale Score [ Time Frame: Particpants will be treated for 6 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
We hypothesiizedis that a standardized American gisneng formulation will improved HIV-related fatigue. To test this hypothesis we propose a 6-week double-blind, placebo- controlled trial of 3 escalating doses of American ginseng (1000, 2000, and 3000 mg/day) in 120 HIV+ patients with clinically significant fatigue, as defined by their scores on the Fatigue Severity Scale
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT01500096 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
  • Additional questionnaire will be used to quantify fatigue, quality of life, symptoms of depression, sleep quality, virologic, immunologic, and inflammatory markers. [ Time Frame: From baseline to the end of four weeks of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change in the Brief Fatigue Inventory from baseline to end of four weeks of treatment
  • Additional questionnaire will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and side effects [ Time Frame: From baseline to the end of four weeks of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change in Epworth Sleepiness Scale score from baseline to end of four weeks of treatment
  • Additional questionnaire will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and side effects [ Time Frame: From baseline to the end of four weeks of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change in Patient Health Questionnaire score from baseline to end of four weeks of treatment
  • Additional questionnaire will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and side effects [ Time Frame: From baseline to the end of four weeks of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change in Insomnia Severity Index Score from baseline to end of four weeks of treatment
  • Additional questionnaire will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and side effects [ Time Frame: From baseline to the end of four weeks of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change in Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey score from baseline to end of four weeks of treatment
  • Additional questionnaire will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and side effects [ Time Frame: From baseline to the end of four weeks of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change in Clinical Global Impressions of Change Scale score from baseline to end of four weeks of treatment
  • Additional questionnaire will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and side effects [ Time Frame: From baseline to the end of four weeks of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change in IL-6 and soluble receptors of TNF α 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) from baseline to end of four weeks of treatment
  • Additional questionnaire will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and side effects [ Time Frame: From baseline to the end of four weeks of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Change in CD4 cell count from baseline to end of four weeks of treatment
  • Additional questionnaire will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and side effects [ Time Frame: From baseline to end of four weeks of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Change in plasma HIV RNA from baseline to end of four weeks of treatment
  • Additional questionnaire will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and side effects [ Time Frame: From baseline to end of four weeks of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Adverse events in intervention (American ginseng) and control arms (placebo) from baseline to end of four weeks of treatment
  • Additional questionnaire will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and side effects [ Time Frame: From baseline to the end of four weeks of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change in PROMIS fatigue score from baseline to end of four weeks of treatment
  • Additional questionnaired will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and sife effects [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Brief Fatigue Inventory
  • Additional questionnaired will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and sife effects [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Epworth Sleepiness Scale
  • Additional questionnaired will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and sife effects [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Patient Health Questionnaire
  • Additional questionnaired will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and sife effects [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Insomnia Severity Score
  • Additional questionnaired will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and sife effects [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey
  • Additional questionnaired will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and sife effects [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Clinical Global Impressions of Change Scale
  • Additional questionnaired will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and sife effects [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    IL-6 and soluble receptors of TNF α 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2)
  • Additional questionnaired will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and sife effects [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    CD4 cell count
  • Additional questionnaired will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and sife effects [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Plasma HIV RNA
  • Additional questionnaired will be used to quantify fatigue, inflammatory, immunologic, and virologic markers, and sife effects [ Time Frame: 6 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Adverse events
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
American Ginseng to Improve HIV-Associated Fatigue: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Design, Multiple-Dose Clinical Trial
American Ginseng to Improve HIV-Associated Fatigue: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multiple-Dose Escalation Clinical Trial

The purpose of this study is to determine whether American ginseng is effective in the treatment of HIV-associated fatigue.

STUDY DESIGN Chronic fatigue is a major problem for HIV-infected patients and contributes to decreased quality of life and physical functioning, higher levels of psychological distress, and antiretroviral non-adherence. The etiology of fatigue in HIV-infected patients is unknown, but changes in systemic inflammation may play a contributing role. The mechanism of action of ginseng in the treatment of fatigue is also not clear, but in its role as a purported "adaptogen," it may decrease fatigue by altering systemic inflammation. Ginseng is one of the most popular botanical products in the US and is marketed to improve fatigue and vitality. Our preliminary data suggested that American ginseng at 1000-2000 mg/day may decrease fatigue in cancer patients. HIV-infected patients frequently use ginseng, in part because they perceive these therapies to be safer than more conventional therapies.

We hypothesized that a standardized American ginseng formulation will improved HIV-related fatigue. To test this hypothesis we propose a 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, parallel study of four weeks of treatment involving two doses of American ginseng or placebo (1000mg/day or 3000 mg/day) in 120 HIV-infected patients with clinically significant fatigue, as defined by their scores on the Fatigue Severity Scale. Patients will be treated with American ginseng or placebo every morning for a total of two doses of 1000 mg/day or 3000 mg/day. A smaller cohort of 12 out of 120 subjects will be enrolled initially to monitor closely for confirmed virologic failure, If confirmed virologic failure is not observed, enrollment will continue to the proposed 120 subjects. Virologic failure is defined as two consecutive plasma viral loads >200 cells according to the 2012 Department of Health Humans Services Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1 infected adults and adolescents

The proposed doses of American ginseng are the same as those used in our previous trials. American ginseng 1000 mg/day showed efficacy in ameliorating fatigue in cancer patients. The highest dose of American ginseng (3000 mg/day) selected for this study was derived from our previous American ginseng trial.

Change on scores of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) between American ginseng and placebo groups at baseline, and treatment weeks 2, 4, and 6 (the last safety visit two weeks after completing the 4-week treatment period with American ginseng or placebo) will be calculated. The primary comparison of interest will involve the primary endpoint of the average change in the FSS scale score from baseline to the end of treatment. Other instruments to supplement the FSS and further assess fatigue will be a modified version of the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV), the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) of Change Scale, and PROMIS fatigue. To further elucidate the mechanism of HIV-related fatigue, we will evaluate the effects of American ginseng and placebo on markers of systemic inflammation such as IL-6 and soluble receptors of TNF α 1 and 2 (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2), at baseline and weeks 2, 4, and 6. CD4 cell counts, plasma HIV RNA levels, and adverse events (AEs) will also be assessed for safety purposes.

DURATION:

The total duration of this study is 6 weeks. Participants will receive American ginseng or placebo during the first 4 weeks of the study. On week 6 participants will complete their final post treatment safety study visit.

POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE:

120 HIV-infected subjects (40 in the American ginseng 1000 mg/day arm, 40 in the American ginseng 3000 mg/day arm, 20 in the placebo 1000 mg/day arm, and 20 in the placebo 3000 mg/day arm).

REGIMEN:

This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, longitudinal, parallel study with two doses of American ginseng. As shown in the study schematic figure, two doses of American ginseng or placebo (1000 or 3000 mg/day) will be given to 120 HIV-infected patients (40 in the American ginseng 1000 mg/day arm, 40 in the American ginseng 3000 mg/day arm, 20 in the placebo 1000 mg/day arm, and 20 in the placebo 3000 mg/day arm) with clinically significant fatigue. Participants will receive American ginseng or placebo for a total of 4 weeks and will be followed for a total of 6 weeks (week 6 is the last safety visit 2 weeks after completing the 4-week treatment period with American ginseng or placebo).

American ginseng will be continued for Grades 1 and 2 toxicities at the discretion of the investigator. Treatment will be discontinued for subjects experiencing any grade ≥3 study drug toxicity. Evaluations for the early termination visit will be completed for these subjects. Participants who discontinue treatment secondary to toxicity will be followed until resolution, return to baseline values, or an adequate explanation can be given for their condition. Subjects requiring dose modifications/reductions/interruptions of American ginseng/placebo to manage toxicities will be followed off study drugs. The total number of patients accrued hence will be 120 patients (40 in the American ginseng 1000 mg/day arm, 40 in the American ginseng 3000 mg/day arm, 20 in the placebo 1000 mg/day arm, and 20 in the placebo American ginseng 3000 mg/day arm).

STUDY DURATION The total duration of this study is six weeks. Participants will receive American ginseng or placebo during the first 4 weeks of the study. On week 6 participants will complete their final post treatment safety study visit.

STUDY AGENT/INTERVENTION DESCRIPTION Two doses of American ginseng or placebo (1000 mg/day or 3000 mg/day) every morning by mouth for a 4-week period.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OBJECTIVES The overall objective of this study is to determine the effect of American ginseng on fatigue in HIV-infected subjects. HIV-infected subjects with fatigue will be randomized to receive two doses (1000 mg/day or 3000 mg/day) of standardized American ginseng or placebo, and their levels of fatigue and quality of life will be assessed. We will also quantify proinflammatory cytokines in the placebo and American ginseng-treated groups to further elucidate the mechanism of HIV-related fatigue, and the effects of American ginseng on these markers.

ENDPOINTS

Primary Endpoint: Change in FSS total score from baseline to end of four weeks of treatment.

Secondary Endpoints: Change from baseline and values observed at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-baseline for the following measures: BFI-global assessment score ESS score PHQ-9 total score ISI score MOS-HIV scale total score GIC score PROMIS fatigue scale score Serum cytokines (IL-6, sTNFR1, sTNFR2) CD4 cell counts, proportion with detectable plasma HIV RNA, AEs will be measured using the Division of AIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adults Adverse events.

Interventional
Phase 2
Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
HIV/AIDS-associated Fatigue
  • Drug: American ginseng
    American ginseng 1000 mg/day and 3000 mg/day will be evaluated in the intervention arms for this study. Participants will be randomized to American ginseng 1000 or 3000 mg/day capsules taken daily for four weeks.
    Other Name: Panax quinquefolius
  • Dietary Supplement: Placebo for American ginseng

    Placebo for American ginseng 1000 mg/day and 3000 mg/day will be evaluated in the control arms for this study. Participants will be randomized to placebo for American ginseng 1000 or 3000 mg/day capsules taken daily for four weeks.

    Arms: Placebo for American ginseng 1000 mg/day, Placebo for American ginseng 3000 mg/day

    Other Name: Placebo for American ginseng
  • Active Comparator: American ginseng 1000 mg/day
    4-week of American ginseng 1000 mg/day every morning
    Intervention: Drug: American ginseng
  • Placebo Comparator: Placebo for American ginseng 1000 mg/day
    4-week of placebo for American ginseng 1000 mg/day every morning
    Intervention: Dietary Supplement: Placebo for American ginseng
  • Active Comparator: American ginseng 3000 mg/day
    4-week of American ginseng 3000 mg/day every morning
    Intervention: Drug: American ginseng
  • Placebo Comparator: Placebo for American ginseng 3000 mg/day
    4-week of placebo for American ginseng 3000 mg/day every morning
    Intervention: Dietary Supplement: Placebo for American ginseng

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruiting
120
July 2014
February 2014   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

INCLUSION CRITERIA

  1. HIV-infected men and women, ≥18 years of age
  2. HIV-1 infection documented by a rapid HIV test or any licensed ELISA test kit and confirmed by a repeat ELISA, Western blot at any time prior to study entry; or documentation of ongoing HIV/AIDS care, or treatment for AIDS, or previous positive HIV serology at any time prior to study entry
  3. On stable antiretroviral therapy for at least three months
  4. Undetectable plasma HIV RNA using conventional assays with lower limits of quantification (20-75 copies/ml) obtained within 30 days prior to entry
  5. The following laboratory values obtained within 30 prior to study entry:

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥750/mm3 Hematocrit ≥30 Platelet count ≥40,000/mm3 Calculated creatinine clearance (CrCl) ≥50 mL/min, as estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault equation* AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase <3 x ULN total bilirubin ≤2.5 x ULN

    NOTE: If the potential subject is taking an atazanavir-containing regimen at the time of screening, total bilirubin ≤5 x ULN is acceptable

    * Calculation for the Cockcroft-Gault equation is available at https://www.fstrf.org/common/utilities/calculators/ccc.html

  6. Clinically significant fatigue (≥4.5 on the FSS)
  7. PHQ-9 Questionnaire score <10
  8. ISI Questionnaire <14
  9. On stable psychiatric medications for at least 8 weeks prior to enrollment.
  10. Ability and willingness of subject to provide a signed informed consent and comply with all study requirements
  11. Laboratory values and physical examination as judged by the principal investigator to be safe to participate
  12. Females of reproductive potential (women who have not been post-menopausal for at least 24 consecutive months, i.e., who have had menses within the preceding 24 months, or women who have not undergone surgical sterilization, specifically hysterectomy, or bilateral oophorectomy or tubal ligation) will need a negative serum or urine pregnancy test within 30 days prior to entry.

    NOTE: Acceptable documentation of hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy, tubal ligation, tubal micro-inserts, and menopause is self-reported history.

  13. All potential subjects must agree not to participate in the conception process (e.g., active attempt to become pregnant or to impregnate, sperm donation, in vitro fertilization), and if participating in sexual activity that could lead to pregnancy, the subject/ partner must reliable methods of contraception (condoms, with or without a spermicidal agent; a diaphragm or cervical cap with spermicide; an IUD; or hormone-based contraceptive) while receiving study treatment. Subjects will be encourage to use a barrier method of contraception (e.g. condoms) along with hormonal contraceptives during administration of American ginseng.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA

  1. Untreated hypothyroidism (TSH >4.5 uIU/ml)
  2. Untreated or undertreated hypogonadism (calculated free testosterone below The lower limit of normal)
  3. Untreated or under-treated major depressive disorder
  4. No change in testosterone therapy within 6 weeks prior to screening
  5. As determined by the investigator, history of chronic or acute medical condition that in the opinion of the investigator would jeopardize safety of subjects participating in this study
  6. Hospitalization or therapy for serious illness within 30 days prior to study entry as judged by the investigator
  7. Known allergy/sensitivity or any hypersensitivity to components of American ginseng
  8. Active drug or alcohol use or dependence that, in the opinion of the site investigator, would interfere with adherence or subject compliance with study requirements (stable methadone treatment allowed)
  9. Current use or requirement for any medications prohibited with study treatment including warfarin. (Lists of prohibited medications are contained in the Prohibited Medications Section of the protocol)
  10. Pregnancy or breastfeeding
  11. Use of any immunomodulator (e.g., interferons, interleukins, systemic corticosteroids, cyclosporine), vaccine, or investigational therapy within 30 days prior to study entry
  12. Treatment with investigational study drugs/vaccines
  13. Co-enrolment in observational trials is allowed if the blood volume requirement does not exceed the Red Cross limits specified for this clinical trial
Both
18 Years and older
No
Contact: Adriana Andrade, MD, MPH, FACP 410-614-4036 aandrade@jhmi.edu
Contact: Todd Brown, MD, PhD 443-756-5302 tbrown27@jhmi.edu
United States
 
NCT01500096
5R01AT005526-03
Yes
Adriana Andrade, Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)
Not Provided
Johns Hopkins University
February 2013

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP