Continuous Versus Intermittent Dosing Regimens for Pomalidomide in Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Celgene Corporation
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Yale University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01319422
First received: March 14, 2011
Last updated: June 12, 2014
Last verified: June 2014

March 14, 2011
June 12, 2014
June 2011
October 2014   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
  • To compare the clinical activity in terms of response rate following continuous or intermittent dosing regimens. [ Time Frame: Efficacy assessments will be made after the first two cycles of therapy (approximately 56 days--each cycle is 28 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    All partial and complete responses must be confirmed with another efficacy assessment in no less than 4 weeks apart.
  • To compare the clinical activity in terms of response rate following continuous or intermittent dosing regimens. [ Time Frame: After the initial efficacy assessment at the completion of cycle 2 (at approximately 56 days), efficacy assessments will be made after every other cycle (approximately every 56 days). ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    All partial and complete responses must be confirmed with another efficacy assessment in no less than 4 weeks apart.
Same as current
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT01319422 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
  • To compare the effect of continuous versus intermittent regimens on F actin polymerization in PBMC and activation of tumor antigen-specific T cells, as well as innate lymphocytes (NK or NKT cells). [ Time Frame: Research blood draw will be obtained at baseline, and at 2-4 hr (on day 1), 1 wk, and 4 wk after initiation of cycles 1 and 2. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Correlation to be determined upon completion of study treatment
  • To correlate drug induced biologic effects with adverse effects and clinical responses. [ Time Frame: Research bone marrow aspirate is obtained at baseline and after completion of 2 cycles of therapy (approximately 56 days) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Research bone marrow aspirate is obtained to assess response (optional, but recommended), and to document complete remission, if applicable. Correlation to be determined upon completion of study treatment
  • To correlate the drug induced proximate changes with effects on cytokine profile. [ Time Frame: Research blood draw will be obtained at baseline, and at 2-4 hr (on day 1), 1 wk, and 4 wk after initiation of cycles 1 and 2. ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Correlation to be determined upon completion of study treatment
Same as current
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
Continuous Versus Intermittent Dosing Regimens for Pomalidomide in Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma
Clinical and Pharmacodynamic Comparison of Continuous Versus Intermittent Dosing Regimens for Pomalidomide in Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma

Lenalidomide has clinical activity in myeloma. The closely related compound, Pomalidomide, may have clinical activity in patients who have previously been treated with lenalidomide and who no longer respond to it. The mechanism of anti-tumor effects of these drugs has been attributed to several effects including anti-angiogenesis, immune activation, and anti-proliferative effects. Recent studies have suggested that these agents can mediate surprisingly rapid biologic effects on human monocytes and T cells. Our hypothesis is that the proximate effects of these drugs will be sensitive and quantitative surrogates of subsequent effects including activation of tumor antigen specific T cells as well as innate immune cells. Understanding the correlation between the pharmacodynamics of these effects with downstream activation using quantitative assays will facilitate the rational development of pomalidomide as immune-modulatory drug in diverse settings as well as its optimal development in myeloma therapy.

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a common hematologic malignancy characterized by clonal expansion of transformed plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow1. Over the past decade, the introduction of immunomodulatory agents (such as thalidomide and lenalidomide) and proteasome inhibitors (such as bortezomib) as effective therapies has altered the therapeutic landscape for multiple myeloma (MM). Following the approval and establishment of thalidomide-containing regimens, such as melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide (MPT) and Thal/Dex, as the standard first-line therapy for newly diagnosed MM (NDMM), lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone (RD) was approved for the treatment of patients with previously treated MM1. However, even with these newly approved agents, MM remains an incurable disease and most patients will eventually relapse and progress after multiple lines of different therapeutic regimens including both lenalidomide as well as bortezomib. Thus there remains a continued need to identify newer agents to maintain long term disease control in these patients.

Thalidomide and its immune-modulatory analogue lenalidomide have clinical activity in myeloma. Pomalidomide, a thalidomide analogue, is an immunomodulatory agent that displays similar anti-angiogenic activity, but far greater anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory activity, compared to the parent drug. Pomalidomide and lenalidomide have been shown to possess very similar pharmacological properties in vitro, including anti-angiogenic, immunomodulatory and anti-proliferative properties. However a unifying molecular mechanism for these diverse effects has been elusive. Pomalidomide and lenalidomide have significantly greater capacity for enhanced costimulation, leading to enhanced activation of innate and adaptive immune cells compared to Thalidomide. Recent studies have yielded the surprising finding that these agents can mediate rapid biologic effects on human monocytes and T cells in culture leading to activation of RhoA GTPases, and enhanced actin polymerization. Changes in actin cytoskeleton may also contribute to the capacity to these drugs to enhance the formation of immune synapses, Pomalidomide has also been shown to stimulate antibody-dependent cytotoxic T-cell activity (ADCC) in preclinical models.

At tolerated doses (MTD = 2 mg QD and 5 mg QOD), pomalidomide has been shown to be active in subjects with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM) (study CC-4047-00-001). In 45 subjects who received doses of pomalidomide ranging, by cohort, up to 10 mg daily, the most commonly occurring dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was reversible neutropenia. As with other IMiDs administered to subjects receiving concomitant systemic steroids, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was seen (in 1 subject each in this study and in its subsequent named patient supply rollover program).

Recently, preliminary efficacy and safety data from an ongoing phase II study, led by Martha Lacy at Mayo Clinic, were published. Sixty patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma were enrolled. Pomalidomide (CC-4047) was given orally at a dose of 2 mg daily on days 1-28 of a 28-day cycle and dexamethasone was given orally at a dose of 40 mg daily on days 1, 8, 15, 22 of each cycle. Patient also received aspirin 325 mg once daily for thromboprophylaxis. The study endpoints were the response rate in patients taking pomalidomide plus dexamethasone including patients with lenalidomide resistant refractory multiple myeloma, and safety of pomalidomide plus dexamethasone. Responses were recorded using the criteria of the International Myeloma Working Group. Thirty eight patients achieved objective response (63%) including CR in 3 patients (5%), VGPR in 17 patients (28%), and PR in 18 patients (30%). The CR + VGPR rate was 33%. Grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity occurred in 23 patients (38%) and consisted of anemia in three patients (5%), thrombocytopenia in two patients (3%) and neutropenia in 21 (35%). Among those that developed grade 3/4 neutropenia, all first experienced the neutropenia in cycle 1-3; no new patients experienced grade 3/4 neutropenia in cycle 4 or later. The most common non-hematological grade 3/4 toxicities were fatigue (17%) and pneumonia (8%). Other grade 3/4 non-hematological toxicities that occurred in less than 5% included diarrhea, constipation, hyperglycemia, and neuropathy. One patient (1.6%) had a thromboembolic event of deep vein thrombosis.

Another dosing regimen for Pomalidomide involved 21/28 day dosing, as in the current dosing regimen for Lenalidomide. In this trial the recommended dose for phase II testing was determined to be 4 mg, 21/28 d. Clinical response (greater than or equal to a partial response (PR)) was observed in 7/25 (28%) patients. While both regimens seem to be clinically active, it is unclear at present as to which regimen leads to greater immune activation or clinical activity.

In addition to MM, pre-clinical data and the prior experience with thalidomide and lenalidomide in the treatment of patients with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) provided the rationale for the use of pomalidomide in patients with MMM. This is further supported by the results of a Celgene sponsored trial (MMM-001) which indicated that pomalidomide therapy at 0.5 mg or 2 mg/day +/- an abbreviated course of prednisone is well tolerated in patients with myelofibrosis and active in the treatment of anemia.

However, these studies did not monitor proximate pharmacodynamic events (such as might occur within hours of drug exposure), and link these to downstream effects, including clinical activity and toxicity. Our hypothesis is that the proximate effects of these drugs (including drug induced changes in F-actin) and early phosphorylation events will be sensitive and quantitative surrogates of subsequent effects including activation of tumor antigen specific T cells as well as innate immune cells. Understanding the correlation between pharmacodynamics of these effects with downstream activation using quantitative assays will facilitate rational development of these agents as immunomodulatory drugs in diverse settings and may also allow optimization of drug delivery to both reduce potential toxicity, and enhance efficacy.

Interventional
Phase 2
Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Multiple Myeloma
Drug: Pomalidomide
Comparison of different dosages and schedules of drug
Other Name: CC-4047
  • Experimental: Pomalidomide 2 mg/d days 1-28 of a 28 day cycle
    Intervention: Drug: Pomalidomide
  • Experimental: Pomalidomide 4 mg/d days 1-21 of a 28 day cycle
    Intervention: Drug: Pomalidomide
Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Active, not recruiting
48
December 2014
October 2014   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Understand and voluntarily sign an informed consent form.
  • Age ≥18 years at the time of signing the informed consent form.
  • Able to adhere to the study visit schedule and other protocol requirements.
  • Relapsed / Refractory Multiple Myeloma following at least two prior standard therapies including lenalidomide. Induction therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is considered one regimen.
  • Patients must be refractory to prior lenalidomide therapy. For the purpose of this protocol, refractory will be defined as history of progression on a regimen containing full or maximally tolerated dose of lenalidomide administered for a minimum of at least one complete cycle of therapy.
  • All patients must have measurable disease defined as one or more of the following criteria:

    • Serum monoclonal protein greater than 10 g/L, serum immunoglobulin free light chain (FLC) more than 10 mg/dL and an abnormal FLC ratio, urine light-chain excretion > 200 mg/24 h, measurable soft tissue plasmacytoma that has not been irradiated, or greater than 30% plasma cells in bone marrow.
  • All previous cancer therapy, including radiation, hormonal therapy and surgery, must have been discontinued at least 2 weeks prior to treatment in this study.
  • ECOG performance status of ≤ 2 at study entry (see Appendix D).
  • Laboratory test results within these ranges:

    • Absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1.0 x 1000/uL
    • Platelet count ≥ 75 x 1000/uL
    • Serum creatinine ≤ 2.5 mg/dL
    • Total bilirubin ≤ 2 mg/dL
    • AST (SGOT) and ALT (SGPT) ≤ 5 x ULN
  • Disease free of prior malignancies for ≥ 5 years with exception of currently treated basal cell, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, or carcinoma "insitu" of the cervix or breast.
  • Females of childbearing potential (FCBP)† must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test with a sensitivity of at least 25 mIU/mL within 10 - 14 days prior to and again within 24 hours of starting pomalidomide and must either commit to continued abstinence from heterosexual intercourse or begin TWO acceptable methods of birth control, one highly effective method and one additional effective method AT THE SAME TIME, at least 28 days before she starts taking pomalidomide. FCBP must also agree to ongoing pregnancy testing. Men must agree to use a latex condom during sexual contact with a FCBP even if they have had a vasectomy. All patients must be counseled at a minimum of every 28 days about pregnancy precautions and risks of fetal exposure. See Appendix A and B: Risks of Fetal Exposure, Pregnancy Testing Guidelines and Acceptable Birth Control Methods, AND also Education and Counseling Guidance Document.
  • Able to take aspirin (81 mg) daily as prophylactic anticoagulation (patients intolerant to ASA may use warfarin or low molecular weight heparin).

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Any serious medical condition, laboratory abnormality, or psychiatric illness that would prevent the subject from signing the informed consent form.
  • Pregnant or breast feeding females. (Lactating females must agree not to breast feed while taking pomalidomide).
  • Women of child-bearing potential who are unwilling to use a dual method of contraception; and men who are unwilling to use a condom.
  • Any condition, including the presence of laboratory abnormalities, which places the subject at unacceptable risk if he/she were to participate in the study or confounds the ability to interpret data from the study.
  • Use of any other experimental drug or therapy within 28 days of baseline.
  • Known hypersensitivity to thalidomide or lenalidomide.
  • The development of erythema nodosum if characterized by a desquamating rash while taking thalidomide, pomalidomide or similar drugs.
  • Any prior use of pomalidomide.
  • Concurrent use of other anti-cancer agents or treatments.
  • Known positive for HIV or active infectious hepatitis, B or C.
  • Grade 3 or 4 peripheral neuropathy
Both
18 Years and older
No
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
United States
 
NCT01319422
HIC 1011007607
No
Yale University
Yale University
Celgene Corporation
Principal Investigator: Madhav Dhodapkar, M.D. Yale University
Yale University
June 2014

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP