Gabapentin and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer and Renal Cancer (GPRD)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by:
GlaxoSmithKline
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01138124
First received: June 3, 2010
Last updated: June 23, 2011
Last verified: June 2011

June 3, 2010
June 23, 2011
March 2010
August 2010   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
  • Number of Pancreatic Cancer Cases and Matched Controls With the Indicated Exposure to Gabapentin [ Time Frame: The case index date (ID) was the date of incident pancreatic cancer diagnosis ascertained in the GPRD study cohort 1995-2008. The matched control ID was the date at which the follow-up time from his/her cohort entry was the same as that for the case ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incident pancreatic cancer. Gabapentin Exposure Description: Without 2 year lag = Gabapentin prescription from cohort entry to index date. With 2 year lag = Gabapentin prescription from cohort entry to 2 years prior to index date (to control for prediagnostic prescribing for pain symptoms possibly related to cancer).
  • Number of Pancreatic Cancer Cases and Matched Controls With the Indicated Number of Gabapentin Prescriptions [ Time Frame: The case index date (ID) was the date of incident pancreatic cancer diagnosis ascertained in the GPRD study cohort 1995-2008. The matched control ID was the date at which the follow-up time from his/her cohort entry was the same as that for the case ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incident pancreatic cancer. Gabapentin Exposure Description: Without 2 year lag = Gabapentin exposure from cohort entry to index date. With 2 year lag = Gabapentin exposure from cohort entry to 2 years prior to index date (to control for prediagnostic prescribing for pain symptoms possibly related to cancer). Tertiles without 2 year lag: Tertile 1 (1-2 prescriptions),Tertile 2 (3-8 prescriptions), and Tertile 3 (9-218 prescriptions). Tertile's with 2 year lag: Tertile 1 (1-2 prescriptions), Tertile 2 (3-10 prescriptions),Tertile 3 (11-191 prescriptions).
  • Number of Pancreatic Cancer Cases and Matched Controls With the Indicated Duration of Exposure to Gabapentin [ Time Frame: The case index date (ID) was the date of incident pancreatic cancer diagnosis ascertained in the GPRD study cohort 1995-2008. The matched control ID was the date at which the follow-up time from his/her cohort entry was the same as that for the case ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incident pancreatic cancer. Gabapentin Exposure Description: Without 2 year lag = Gabapentin exposure from cohort entry to index date. With 2 year lag = Gabapentin exposure from cohort entry to 2 years prior to index date (to control for prediagnostic prescribing for pain symptoms possibly related to cancer). Tertile's without 2 year lag: Tertile 1 (0.01 - 1.55 months), Tertile 2 (1.56 - 6.44 months), and Tertile 3 (6.45 - 78.36 months). Tertile's with 2 year lag: Tertile 1 (0.01 - 1.78 months), Tertile 2 (1.79 - 7.20 months), and Tertile 3 (7.21 - 64.13 months).
  • Number of Pancreatic Cancer Cases and Matched Controls With the Indicated Cumulative Dose of Gabapentin [ Time Frame: The case index date (ID) was the date of incident pancreatic cancer diagnosis ascertained in the GPRD study cohort 1995-2008. The matched control ID was the date at which the follow-up time from his/her cohort entry was the same as that for the case ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incident pancreatic cancer. Gabapentin Exposure Description: Without 2 year lag = Gabapentin exposure from cohort entry to index date. With 2 year lag = Gabapentin exposure from cohort entry to 2 years prior to index date (to control for prediagnostic prescribing for pain symptoms possibly related to cancer). Tertile's without 2 year lag: Tertile 1 (0.01 - 33.6 grams), Tertile 2 (33.7 - 185.0 grams), and Tertile 3 (185.1 - 7500.2 grams). Tertile's with 2 year lag: Tertile 1 (0.01 - 39.0 grams), Tertile 2 (39.1 - 210.0 grams), and Tertile 3 (210.1 - 5623.8 grams).
  • Number of Renal Cancer Cases and Matched Controls With the Indicated Exposure to Gabapentin [ Time Frame: The case index date (ID) was the date of incident renal cancer diagnosis ascertained in the GPRD study cohort 1995-2008. The matched control ID was the date at which the follow-up time from his/her cohort entry was the same as that for the case. ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incident renal cancer. Gabapentin Exposure Description: Without 2 year lag = Gabapentin prescription from cohort entry to index date. With 2 year lag = Gabapentin prescription from cohort entry to 2 years prior to index date (to control for prediagnostic prescribing for pain symptoms possibly related to cancer).
  • Number of Renal Cancer Cases and Matched Controls With the Indicated Number of Gabapentin Prescriptions [ Time Frame: The case index date (ID) was the date of incident renal cancer diagnosis ascertained in the GPRD study cohort 1995-2008. The matched control ID was the date at which the follow-up time from his/her cohort entry was the same as that for the case. ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incident renal cancer. Gabapentin Exposure Description: Without 2 year lag = Gabapentin exposure from cohort entry to index date. With 2 year lag = Gabapentin exposure from cohort entry to 2 years prior to index date (to control for prediagnostic prescribing for pain symptoms possibly related to cancer). Tertiles without 2 year lag: Tertile 1 (1-2 prescriptions),Tertile 2 (3-8 prescriptions), and Tertile 3 (9-218 prescriptions). Tertile's with 2 year lag: Tertile 1 (1-2 prescriptions), Tertile 2 (3-10 prescriptions),Tertile 3 (11-191 prescriptions).
  • Number of Renal Cancer Cases and Matched Controls With the Indicated Duration of Exposure to Gabapentin [ Time Frame: The case index date (ID) was the date of incident renal cancer diagnosis ascertained in the GPRD study cohort 1995-2008. The matched control ID was the date at which the follow-up time from his/her cohort entry was the same as that for the case. ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incident renal cancer. Gabapentin Exposure Description: Without 2 year lag = Gabapentin exposure from cohort entry to index date. With 2 year lag = Gabapentin exposure from cohort entry to 2 years prior to index date (to control for prediagnostic prescribing for pain symptoms possibly related to cancer). Tertile's without 2 year lag: Tertile 1 (0.01 - 1.55 months), Tertile 2 (1.56 - 6.44 months), and Tertile 3 (6.45 - 78.36 months). Tertile's with 2 year lag: Tertile 1 (0.01 - 1.78 months), Tertile 2 (1.79 - 7.20 months), and Tertile 3 (7.21 - 64.13 months).
  • Number of Renal Cancer Cases and Matched Controls With the Indicated Cumulative Dose of Gabapentin [ Time Frame: The case index date (ID) was the date of incident renal cancer diagnosis ascertained in the GPRD study cohort 1995-2008. The matched control ID was the date at which the follow-up time from his/her cohort entry was the same as that for the case. ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Incident renal cancer. Gabapentin Exposure Description: Without 2 year lag = Gabapentin exposure from cohort entry to index date. With 2 year lag = Gabapentin exposure from cohort entry to 2 years prior to index date (to control for prediagnostic prescribing for pain symptoms possibly related to cancer). Tertile's without 2 year lag: Tertile 1 (0.01 - 33.6 grams), Tertile 2 (33.7 - 185.0 grams), and Tertile 3 (185.1 - 7500.2 grams). Tertile's with 2 year lag: Tertile 1 (0.01 - 39.0 grams), Tertile 2 (39.1 - 210.0 grams), and Tertile 3 (210.1 - 5623.8 grams).
Incident pancreatic cancer, defined as first time pancreatic cancer diagnosis (READ/OXMIS codes) in the GPRD study cohort 1995-2008. Exocrine pancreatic cancer, endocrine pancreatic cancer, and carcinoma in situ are included. [ Time Frame: Pancreatic cancer is ascertained in the GPRD study cohort from 1995-2008. ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT01138124 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
Not Provided
Incident renal cancer, defined as first time renal cancer diagnosis (READ/OXMIS codes) in the GPRD study cohort 1995-2008. Renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis cancer are included; Wilm's tumor and cancer metastatic to kidney are excluded. [ Time Frame: Renal cancer is ascertained in the GPRD study cohort from 1995-2008. ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
Not Provided
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Gabapentin and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer and Renal Cancer (GPRD)
Risk of Pancreatic Cancer and Renal Cancer in Patients Exposed to Gabapentin in the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database

High doses of gabapentin are associated with pancreatic acinar cell tumors in rats, but there has been no post marketing pancreatic carcinogenicity signal with gabapentin as reported by spontaneous reports in the Adverse Events Reporting System or in the published literature. In a published case-control screening study of the association of gabapentin with 55 cancers, the only cancer that met the screening criteria for possibly increased cancer risk with gabapentin exposure was renal (including renal pelvis) cancer. This association was judged to be likely due to or substantially accentuated by confounding by cigarette smoking, hypertension, and lifestyle (Cancer Causes Control 2009;20:1821-1835).

The primary objective of this study is to determine whether exposure to gabapentin is associated with an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer or renal cancer in the United Kingdom (UK) General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Almost all members of the UK population are registered with a General Practice, which centralizes the medical information not only from the general practitioners themselves but also from specialist referrals and hospital attendances. Over 487 General Practices contribute data to the GPRD.

The study cohort from which cases and controls are drawn is all subjects in the GPRD 1993-2008. Gabapentin was approved in the UK in May 1993. Entry into the study cohort begins Jan 1, 1993 for all those who are registered in GPRD before that time, and at the time of registration if later than Jan 1, 1993. Patients with a first diagnosis of the respective cancer 1995-2008 are risk set matched with up to 10 controls within the same General Practice for age at cohort entry (within two years), sex, and year of entry into the study cohort (within one year). For cases, the index date is the date of first diagnosis of the respective cancer. The index date for controls is set as the date at which the follow-up time from cohort entry is the same as the case. The index date is chosen so as to give the control equal follow-up time to that of the case for ascertainment of use of gabapentin. Cases and controls will be required to have at least 2 years of follow-up in the study cohort before their index date. Data on gabapentin prescriptions are obtained for cases and controls from study cohort entry to the index date.

Crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) will be produced from conditional logistic regression models, with additional analyses evaluating for latency and dose-response. For pancreatic cancer, covariates are smoking, body mass index, diabetes, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, and chronic pancreatitis. For renal cancer, covariates are smoking, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, diuretic use, epilepsy, and neuropathic pain.

Patients were not recruited for nor enrolled in this study. This study is a retrospective observational study. Data from medical records or insurance claims databases are anonymised and used to develop a patient cohort. All diagnoses and treatment are recorded in the course of routine medical practice. Actual number of patients could be less than , as it is possible for a patient to be represented in more than one of the four arms (See "Participant Flow: Overall Study" Table) because of the risk set sampling.

Observational
Observational Model: Case Control
Time Perspective: Retrospective
Not Provided
Not Provided
Probability Sample

The study cohort from which cases and controls are drawn is all subjects in the UK GPRD 1993-2008. Entry into the study cohort begins Jan 1, 1993 for all those who are registered in GPRD before that time, and at the time of registration if later than Jan 1, 1993. Follow-up ends Dec 31, 2008, or earlier if the respective cancer is diagnosed, or if the subject leaves the GPRD for any reason including death. There are several advantages to the GPRD dataset for this study. It is a large dataset with detailed longitudinal prescription data, and long term follow-up (mean 7 years) to allow for latency in carcinogenicity. It provides good representation of the elderly who are disproportionately affected by pancreatic and renal cancers, and routinely includes data recorded by general practitioners on potential risk factors such as smoking and body mass index.

  • Renal Pelvis Cancer
  • Restless Legs Syndrome
  • Epilepsy
  • Neuropathic Pain
  • Chronic Pancreatitis
  • Hypertension
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Diabetes
  • Renal Cancer
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
Drug: Gabapentin prescriptions
The exposure of interest is gabapentin use as defined by prescriptions recorded by the GPRD general practitioner (British National Formulary codes). Data on prescriptions for gabapentin will be extracted for each case and control from entry into the study cohort up to the index date (the exposure window). Gabapentin exposure will be parameterized as follows: (1) Ever versus never exposed; (2) Number of prescriptions; (3) Duration of exposure; and (4) Cumulative dose. These parameterizations will also be examined with a 2 year lag time from the index date, limiting the exposure window from entry into the study cohort up to 2 years prior to the index date.
UK GPRD 1993-2008
The study cohort from which cases and controls are drawn is all subjects in the United Kingdom (UK) General Practice Research Database (GPRD) 1993-2008. Each member of the UK population is registered with a General Practice, which centralizes the medical information not only from the general practitioners themselves but also from specialist referrals and hospital attendances. Over 487 General Practices contribute data to the GPRD. Entry into the study cohort begins Jan 1, 1993 for all those who are registered in GPRD before that time, and at the time of registration if later than Jan 1, 1993.
Intervention: Drug: Gabapentin prescriptions
Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Completed
54202
August 2010
August 2010   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • The study cohort from which cases and controls are drawn is all subjects in the UK GPRD 1993-2008. Entry into the study cohort begins Jan 1, 1993 for all those who are registered in GPRD before that time, and at the time of registration if later than Jan 1, 1993. Follow-up ends Dec 31, 2008, or earlier if the respective cancer is diagnosed, or if the subject leaves the GPRD for any reason including death.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Cases and controls will be required to have at least 2 years of follow-up in the study cohort before their index date (For cases, the index date is the date of first diagnosis of the respective cancer. The index date for controls is set as the date at which the follow-up time from cohort entry is the same as the case.)
Both
Not Provided
No
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Not Provided
 
NCT01138124
114427, EPI40634, WEUSKOP4774
No
Cheri Hudson; Clinical Disclosure Advisor, GSK Clinical Disclosure
GlaxoSmithKline
Not Provided
Study Director: GSK Clinical Trials GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
June 2011

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP