Energy Value of Macronutrients From Almonds and Mechanisms of Nutrient Action

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Almond Board of California
Information provided by:
USDA Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01007188
First received: November 2, 2009
Last updated: February 8, 2011
Last verified: February 2011

November 2, 2009
February 8, 2011
March 2010
May 2010   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
to measure the energy value of almonds in the human diet [ Time Frame: 3 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Same as current
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT01007188 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
to study molecular mechanisms that may help explain the beneficial health effects of almonds [ Time Frame: 3 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Same as current
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
Energy Value of Macronutrients From Almonds and Mechanisms of Nutrient Action
Energy Value of Macronutrients From Almonds and Mechanisms of Nutrient Action

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) wants to learn more about the number of calories in almonds and the mechanisms of the health effects of almonds. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an inverse or no relationship between nut consumption and body weight, despite the fact that nuts are an energy dense food. Intervention studies have shown that consumption of nuts has no effect on body weight or an effect that is significantly less than predicted. Fecal analyses in studies with peanuts, almonds, and pecans have found increased fecal fat and energy loss with nut consumption; however studies with almonds are lacking.

The objective of this study is to measure the energy value of almonds in the human diet and study molecular mechanisms that may help explain the beneficial health effects of almonds.

Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an inverse or no relationship between nut consumption and body weight, despite the fact that nuts are an energy dense food. Intervention studies have shown that consumption of nuts has no effect on body weight or an effect that is significantly less than predicted. Fecal analyses in studies with peanuts, almonds, and pecans have found increased fecal fat and energy loss with nut consumption; however studies with almonds are lacking.

Previous studies have suggested that nut consumption imparts a variety of health benefits, including reduction of cardiovascular disease and improved satiety. However, studies of almonds are extremely limited. The aim of this study is to determine the energy value of almonds in the human diet and to probe mechanisms by which almonds impart health benefits. The metabolizable energy value of almond nuts will be calculated based on the chemical composition and energy content of the consumed diet and excreta. This will provide a better estimate of the energy value of almonds than simply calculating energy value based on Atwater factors. In addition to determining the energy value of almonds, we will evaluate the effects of almond-rich diets on plasma phytonutrient levels and on gene expression changes to determine what protective mechanisms are activated by almond consumption.

Interventional
Not Provided
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator)
Healthy
  • Other: 1.5PD almonds
    average American diet plus 1.5 oz per day almonds
  • Other: 3.0PD almonds
    average American diet plus 3.0 oz per day almonds
  • Other: Base (without almonds)
    average American diet without almonds
  • Active Comparator: 1.5PD
    average American diet plus 1.5 oz per day almonds
    Intervention: Other: 1.5PD almonds
  • Base
    average American diet without almonds
    Intervention: Other: Base (without almonds)
  • Active Comparator: 3.0PD
    average American diet plus 3.0 oz per day almonds
    Intervention: Other: 3.0PD almonds
Novotny JA, Gebauer SK, Baer DJ. Discrepancy between the Atwater factor predicted and empirically measured energy values of almonds in human diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug;96(2):296-301. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.035782. Epub 2012 Jul 3.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Completed
18
May 2010
May 2010   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 25 to 65 years at beginning of study
  • BMI between 20 and 38 kg/m2
  • Fasting glucose < 126 mg/dl
  • Blood pressure < 160/100 (controlled with certain medications)
  • Fasting total blood cholesterol < 280 mg/dl
  • Fasting triglycerides < 300 mg/dl

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Presence of kidney disease, liver disease, gout, hyperthyroidism, untreated or unstable hypothyroidism, certain cancers, gastrointestinal disease, pancreatic disease, other metabolic diseases, or malabsorption syndromes
  • Type 2 diabetes requiring the use of oral antidiabetic agents or insulin
  • History of bariatric or certain other surgeries related to weight control
  • Smokers or other tobacco users (during 6 months prior to the start of the study)
  • Antibiotic use during the intervention or for 3 weeks prior to any intervention period
  • History of eating disorders or other dietary patterns which are not consistent with the dietary intervention (e.g., vegetarians, very low fat diets, high protein diets)
  • Volunteers who have lost 10% of body weight within the last 12 months or who plan to initiate a weight loss program during the next 10 months
  • Known (self-reported) allergy or adverse reaction to pistachios or other nuts
  • Unable or unwilling to give informed consent or communicate with study staff
  • Self-report of alcohol or substance abuse within the past 12 months and/or current acute treatment or rehabilitation program for these problems (long-term participation in Alcoholics Anonymous is not an exclusion)
  • Other medical, psychiatric, or behavioral factors that in the judgment of the Principal Investigator may interfere with study participation or the ability to follow the intervention protocol
Both
25 Years to 65 Years
Yes
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
United States
 
NCT01007188
2009-412
Yes
David J. Baer, Ph. D., Research Leader, Food Components and Health Laboratory, USDA-ARS, BHNRC
USDA Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center
Almond Board of California
Principal Investigator: David J Baer, Ph. D. USDA Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center
USDA Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center
February 2011

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP