Daily Co-trimoxazole Prophylaxis to Prevent Malaria in Pregnancy

This study has been terminated.
(Malaria prev. fell in the study area, so we cannot evaluate the primary endpoint)
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Zambia
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00711906
First received: July 8, 2008
Last updated: June 4, 2014
Last verified: June 2014

July 8, 2008
June 4, 2014
February 2009
February 2010   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
To test the hypothesis that co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is not inferior to SP intermittent preventive treatment in preventing placental malaria. [ Time Frame: Pregnancy ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Same as current
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00711906 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
  • To evaluate efficacy of CTX prophylaxis in preventing malaria peripheral parasitaemia. [ Time Frame: Pregnancy ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • To evaluate efficacy of CTX prophylaxis in preventing perinatal mortality and in improving birth weight [ Time Frame: At birth ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • To establish the safety of CTX prophylaxis on the offspring by measuring the gestational age at delivery and birth weight. [ Time Frame: At birth ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • To compare the efficacy profile of CTX prophylaxis to that of SP intermittent preventive treatment. [ Time Frame: Pregnancy ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • To compare the safety profile of CTX prophylaxis to that of SP intermittent preventive treatment. [ Time Frame: Pregnancy ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Spontaneous abortion [ Time Frame: </=28 weeks gestation ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Pre-term delivery [ Time Frame: <37 completed weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Neonatal mortality [ Time Frame: Within 28 days after birth ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Maternal mortality [ Time Frame: Up to 6 weeks following delivery ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Major and minor birth defects [ Time Frame: At birth and up to 6 weeks ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
Same as current
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
Daily Co-trimoxazole Prophylaxis to Prevent Malaria in Pregnancy
The Role of Daily Co-trimoxazole Prophylaxis For Prevention of Malaria And Its Effects in Pregnancy

Malaria is a major contributor of disease burden in Sub-Saharan Africa, and pregnant women and children are the most vulnerable population. Malaria in pregnancy increases the risks of abortion, prematurity, maternal anaemia, low birth weight (LBW), perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality. For prevention and control of malaria in pregnancy, Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPT), insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and case management for malaria and anemia are recommended.

HIV infection in pregnancy increases the risk of malaria, LBW, post-natal mortality and also of anaemia. In pregnant women, HIV infection decreases the efficacy of IPT with the medicine sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), which is the only treatment with proven efficacy and safety in IPT and is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Unfortunately, there is a documented increase of resistance to SP, so cotrimoxazole (CTX) could be an alternative: many studies in Zambia and Uganda demonstrated that it reduces mortality and morbidity in HIV infected persons, and CTX prophylaxis significantly improves birth outcomes in immuno-suppressed HIV women. Unfortunately, there is not yet information on its effectiveness for preventing placental malaria infection, maternal anaemia and LBW. Thus in this study, we aim to establish the safety and efficacy of daily CTX in preventing malaria infection during pregnancy and its consequences, both in HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. This information is urgently needed to assist to issue guidelines on IPT in pregnancy.

Malaria is a major contributor of disease burden in Sub-Saharan Africa, with pregnant women and children being the most vulnerable population. P. falciparum infection in pregnancy leads to parasite sequestration in placental vascular space, with increased risks of abortion, stillbirth, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal anaemia, low birth weight (LBW), perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality. In low transmission areas, malaria can evolve towards severe disease with high risk of mortality. In endemic areas, it is still associated with maternal anaemia, LBW and stillbirth. For prevention and control of malaria in pregnancy, WHO recommends Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPT), insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and case management for malaria and anemia.

HIV in pregnancy increases the risk of malaria, LBW, post-natal mortality and also anaemia, suggesting a synergistic interaction between HIV and malaria.

In pregnant women, HIV-1 infection decreases the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine(SP)IPT, although 2 or more doses in 2nd and 3rd trimesters still reduce peripheral parasitaemia, placental infections and maternal anaemia.

To date, SP is the only treatment with data on efficacy and safety in IPT: WHO recommends at least 2 doses after the first trimester. But there is a documented increase in SP resistance, so cotrimoxazole (CTX) could be an alternative: many studies in Zambia and Uganda demonstrated that it reduces mortality and morbidity in HIV infected individuals, and CTX prophylaxis significantly improves birth outcomes in women with CD4 count <200. Concurrent administration of SP and CTX has been associated with increased incidence of severe adverse reactions in HIV-infected patient.

WHO has promoted CTX as alternative to SP for IPT in immuno-compromised HIV-infected pregnant women. Unfortunately, there is no information on effectiveness of daily CTX for preventing placental malaria infection, maternal anaemia and LBW. In the past, CTX has been used to treat malaria in children and daily use of CTX by non-pregnant HIV-infected adults has been associated with a 70% reductions of the incidence of clinical malaria.

In this study, we will target both HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women with CD4≥ 200/µL, with the aim to establish the safety and efficacy of daily CTX in preventing malaria infection during pregnancy and its consequences, by assuming that CTX is not inferior to SP in reducing placental parasitaemia: such information is urgently needed to assist to issue guidelines on IPT in pregnant women.

Interventional
Phase 3
Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Malaria in Pregnancy
  • Drug: Cotrimoxazole
    Cotrimoxazole
    Other Names:
    • CTX
    • Bactrim
  • Drug: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine
    Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine
    Other Names:
    • SP
    • Fansidar
  • Experimental: 1
    HIV-negative women taking CTX as chemoprophylaxis
    Intervention: Drug: Cotrimoxazole
  • Active Comparator: 2
    HIV-negative women taking SP as IPT
    Intervention: Drug: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine
  • Experimental: 3
    HIV-positive women (CD4> 200) taking CTX as chemoprophylaxis
    Intervention: Drug: Cotrimoxazole
  • Active Comparator: 4
    HIV-positive women (CD4 > 200) taking SP as IPT
    Intervention: Drug: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine
Manyando C, Njunju EM, Mwakazanga D, Chongwe G, Mkandawire R, Champo D, Mulenga M, De Crop M, Claeys Y, Ravinetto RM, van Overmeir C, Alessandro UD, Van Geertruyden JP. Safety of daily co-trimoxazole in pregnancy in an area of changing malaria epidemiology: a phase 3b randomized controlled clinical trial. PLoS One. 2014 May 15;9(5):e96017. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096017. eCollection 2014.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Terminated
352
September 2010
February 2010   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Confirmed pregnancy (through palpable fundus and/ or positive pregnancy test)
  • Gestational age between 16 and 28 weeks.
  • Informed consent by patient (or parent/ guardian if patient is less than 18 years of age)
  • No symptoms consistent with malaria
  • Willingness to deliver at the health facility
  • Willingness to adhere to all requirements of the study (including HIV-1 testing)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • History of allergy to study drugs, or previous history of allergy to sulpha drugs
  • History or presence of major illnesses likely to influence pregnancy outcome including diabetes mellitus, severe renal or heart disease, or active tuberculosis, prior to randomization;
  • Any significant illness that requires hospitalization;
  • Intent to move out of the study catchment's area before delivery or deliver at relative's home out of the catchment's area;
  • Prior enrolment in the study or concurrent enrolment in another study
  • Severe anaemia (Hb<7 g/dl)
  • Previous history of unfavourable pregnancy outcome: pre-eclampsia, caesarean section, stillbirth.
  • Being HIV infected and already receiving CTX prophylaxis or ARV treatment
Female
Not Provided
No
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Zambia
 
NCT00711906
ITMP0108
No
Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium
Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium
Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Zambia
Principal Investigator: Christine Manyando, MD Tropical Diseases Research Centre
Study Director: Jean-Pierre Van geertruyden, MD PhD Institute of Tropical medicine
Institute of Tropical Medicine, Belgium
June 2014

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP