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Early vs Late Introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-infected Patients With Tuberculosis (ANRS 1295 CAMELIA)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
French National Institute for Health and Medical Research-French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (Inserm-ANRS) ( French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis )
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00226434
First received: September 23, 2005
Last updated: March 15, 2012
Last verified: March 2012

September 23, 2005
March 15, 2012
January 2006
May 2010   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Survival rate [ Time Frame: At the end of the study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
- vital status after 12 months of follow-up
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00226434 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
  • Type, frequency and severity of Adverse Events that occur during the trial and to their potential relations with the drugs, HIV or TB infection [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Frequency of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Frequency of TB paradoxical reaction, defined as worsening or emergence of signs or symptoms of TB (e.g. fever, cough, shortness of breath, adenopathy or exacerbation of disease at other extra pulmonary sites) during appropriate TB treatment [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Occurrence of opportunistic infections [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Evaluation of TB treatment success [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Evaluation of ART treatment success [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Resistance to ARV treatment determined by genotyping HIV-1 strains among patients with detectable viral load on Day 0 and Week 50 [ Time Frame: Within 12 months of follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Patient's adherence to TB and ARV treatment evaluated based on interviews and pill counts at each study visit [ Time Frame: During the overall study ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Pharmacokinetic study to assess efavirenz plasma exposure will be assayed at regular time intervals [ Time Frame: Within 12 months of follow-up ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Survival Rate [ Time Frame: 50 weeks after enrolment ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • - type, frequency and severity of Adverse Events that occur during the trial and to their potential relations with the drugs, HIV or TB infection
  • - frequency of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
  • - frequency of TB paradoxical reaction, defined as worsening or emergence of signs or symptoms of TB (e.g. fever, cough, shortness of breath, adenopathy or exacerbation of disease at other extra pulmonary sites) during appropriate TB treatment.
  • - Occurrence of opportunistic infections
  • - Evaluation of TB treatment success
  • - Evaluation of ART treatment success
  • - Resistance to ARV treatment determined by genotyping HIV-1 strains among patients with detectable viral load on Day 0 and Week 50
  • - Patient's adherence to TB and ARV treatment evaluated based on interviews and pill counts at each study visit
  • - Pharmacokinetic study to assess efavirenz plasma exposure will be assayed at regular time intervals
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
Early vs Late Introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-infected Patients With Tuberculosis (ANRS 1295 CAMELIA)
Early vs Late Introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy in Naive HIV-infected Patients With Tuberculosis in Cambodia

In Cambodia the prevalence of both tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is high. Data suggest that aggressive management of HIV infection, which includes Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) during treatment of TB, decreases both morbidity and mortality. On the other hand, the use of HAART for patients with TB may cause severe complications due to drug-drug interactions, and occasionally a temporary exacerbation of symptoms. These reactions may be particularly severe when HAART is started soon after the start of TB treatment.

The proposed study aims to determine the optimal time to initiate HAART in previously untreated HIV-infected adult patients with TB and low CD4 cell counts.

In Cambodia the prevalence of both tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is high. In 2000, there were approximately 75.000 newly diagnosed TB cases. In 2003, 1.9% of the population was infected with HIV. TB rates in Cambodia are more than double those observed in other developing countries and up to 30 times higher than those currently seen in the USA or Western Europe. It is estimated that over 8% of the newly diagnosed TB cases are co-infected with HIV, of which approximately 85% are severely immunosuppressed (CD4+ cell count < 200 x 106 cells/l).

Mortality rates were found to be 2-4 folds higher in HIV/TB co-infected patients than in TB alone. Data suggest that aggressive management of HIV infection, which includes Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) during treatment of TB decreases both morbidity and mortality by suppressing viral replication and improving immune function.

On the other hand, the use of HAART for patients with TB may cause severe complications due to drug-drug interactions, and occasionally a temporary exacerbation of symptoms, signs or radiographic manifestations of TB. Such events or 'paradoxical reactions' that occur among 7 - 36% of HIV/TB co-infected patients treated with HAART may be secondary to immune restitution. These reactions may be particularly severe when HAART is started soon after the start of TB treatment.

Most clinical teams recommend delaying the initiation of HAART to avoid the early side effects of TB treatment and simplify clinical management of the co-infected patient. However others argue that early initiation of HAART in TB patients with CD4 cell counts < 100 x 106 cells/l leads to a marked reduction of viral load despite frequent adverse events.

The proposed study aims to determine the optimal time to initiate HAART (defined as d4T + 3TC + efavirenz) in previously untreated HIV-infected adult patients with TB and low CD4 cell counts. The study is a multicentre prospective, randomized, open-label two-armed trial with no placebo. It is designed as a superiority trial to compare the "early arm" (HAART initiated 2 weeks after TB treatment onset) with the "late arm" (HAART initiated 2 months after TB treatment onset). Efficacy will be assessed by the survival rate in the two arms. Secondary objectives will include evaluation of (1) the safety of an early initiation of HAART in terms of drug interactions or paradoxical reactions, (2) the occurrence of opportunistic infections diagnosed during the follow-up period, (3) patients' adherence to TB treatment and HAART, (4) the rate of hospitalization for any cause during the trial; the measure of (5) the effectiveness of the TB treatment and HAART and (6) the predictive factors for the survival, the response to anti-TB therapy and HAART and the paradoxical reactions.

The total study duration is expected to be 4 years (3 years for enrolment and at least one year of follow-up) in five study sites: (1) Khmero-Soviet Friendship Hospital, Phnom Penh; (2) Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh; (3) Provincial hospital, Svay Rieng province; and (4) Provincial hospital, Takeo province, (5) Provincial Hospital, Siem Reap.

The study will be carried out in compliance with the protocol and in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki approved by the World Health Association and with the recommendations of the Good Clinical Practice.

Interventional
Phase 3
Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • HIV Infection
  • Tuberculosis
  • Procedure: Early antiretroviral treatment
    The ARV treatment is started 2 weeks after the diagnosis and the start of the anti-tuberculosis treatment
  • Procedure: Late antiretroviral treatment
    The ARV treatment is started 8 weeks after the diagnosis and the start of the anti-tuberculosis treatment
  • Experimental: 1
    Intervention: Procedure: Early antiretroviral treatment
  • Active Comparator: 2
    Intervention: Procedure: Late antiretroviral treatment

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Completed
661
May 2010
May 2010   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 18 or over
  • Positive HIV test result
  • CD4+ cell count under or equal to 200 cells per ml within 14 days prior the study entry
  • Positive AFB on any smear (sputum, lymph node drainage, stool, CSF, pleural fluid)
  • Naive to ART
  • TB treatment started less than one week prior enrolment
  • Negative gonadotrophin pregnancy test (blood) for women of childbearing potential (i.e. not surgically sterile or less than 2 years menopause)
  • Agreement from female candidates who are participating in sexual activity that could lead to pregnancy while receiving and for 6 weeks after stopping efavirenz to use two reliable methods of contraception, one of which including condom.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Suspected TB with negative AFB
  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women
  • Impaired hepatic function (icterus, elevated AST or ALT at least 5 times over the normal value)
  • Unable and/or unlikely to comprehend and/or be adherent to the protocol
  • Treated for a previous suspected or documented TB other than the ongoing infection which motivates enrolment in this trial
Both
18 Years and older
No
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Cambodia
 
NCT00226434
ANRS 1295 CAMELIA, CIPRA KH 001
Yes
French National Institute for Health and Medical Research-French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (Inserm-ANRS) ( French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis )
French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Principal Investigator: François-Xavier Blanc Bicêtre University Hospital, France
Principal Investigator: Thim Sok Cambodian Health Committee, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Principal Investigator: Anne Goldfeld Institute for Biomedical Research, Boston, USA
French National Institute for Health and Medical Research-French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (Inserm-ANRS)
March 2012

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP