Now Available for Public Comment: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) for FDAAA 801 and NIH Draft Reporting Policy for NIH-Funded Trials

Immediate Versus Deferred Start of Anti-HIV Therapy in HIV-Infected Adults Being Treated for Tuberculosis (STRIDE)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00108862
First received: April 19, 2005
Last updated: July 9, 2012
Last verified: July 2012

April 19, 2005
July 9, 2012
August 2006
July 2010   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Percent of Participants Who Survived Without AIDS Progression. [ Time Frame: Through week 48 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
As this was a study of the strategy of providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) during the initial treatment of TB versus deferring ART until TB was treated for 8-12 weeks, all eligible participants randomized were followed for 48 weeks, whether they started ART as scheduled, whether they started ART at all, or even if the participant did not have TB and discontinued TB treatment. The percent surviving without a new AIDS-defining illness was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier estimator with an associated standard error.
Proportion of participants who have survived without AIDS progression by Week 48
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00108862 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
  • Percent of Participants Reporting a Grade 3 or 4 Adverse Event or Laboratory Abnormality [ Time Frame: Through week 48 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    All eligible participants were included in this analysis. The percent of participants whose highest reported grade of adverse events and laboratory abnormalities was Grade 3 or 4 was calculated with an associated standard error, where Grade 1=mild, Grade 2=moderate, Grade 3=severe, Grade 4=life threatening/disabling, and Grade 5=death.
  • Time to First New AIDS-defining Illness or Death. [ Time Frame: Through week 48 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    All eligible participants were included in this analysis. Weeks from randomization to first new AIDS-defining illness or death was analyzed using a stratified Cox proportional hazards regression model. The stratification was by screening CD4 cell count: <50 cells/mm3 versus =>50 cells/mm3.
  • Percent of Participants With Culture-confirmed Tuberculosis (TB) Who Survived Without AIDS Progression. [ Time Frame: Through week 48 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    This analysis was based on 374 participants with culture-confirmed TB at entry. The percent with culture-confirmed TB surviving without a new AIDS-defining illness was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier estimator with an associated standard error.
  • Percent of Participants Who Interrupted or Discontinued at Least One Tuberculosis (TB) Medication Due to Toxicity. [ Time Frame: Through week 48 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    All eligible participants were included in this analysis. The percent of participants who interrupted at least one TB medication for more than one day due to toxicity or discontinued at least one TB medication due to toxicity was calculated with an associated standard error.
  • Percent of Participants With Confirmed or Probable Tuberculosis (TB) Whose TB Resolved, or Who Required TB Treatment Through the End of Follow-up, or Died, or Were Lost to Follow-up. [ Time Frame: Through week 48 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    TB treatment outcome was assessed in the 800 eligible participants who had confirmed or probable TB at study entry. The sites determined if the TB was resolved. If TB was not resolved, TB treatment outcome status was determined based on whether TB treatment was ongoing at the last study visit; if the participant died while TB treatment was ongoing; or if the participant was lost to follow-up, withdrew consent, or other reason for lacking TB resolution status. Percents were calculated with associated standard errors.
  • Percent of Participants Whose CD4 Increased by at Least 100 Cells/mm^3 Between Baseline and Week 48. [ Time Frame: Through week 48 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    All eligible participants were included in the analysis. Participants who were lost-to-follow-up (LFU) prior to week 48 or who were alive with a CD4 cell count increase of less than 100 cells/mm^3 were grouped separately those who died or whose CD4 cell count increased by at least 100 cells/mm^3. Participants missing CD4 cell counts at week 48 were coded as LFU in this analysis. The percents were calculated with associated standard errors.
  • Percent of Participants With MTB IRIS. [ Time Frame: Through week 48 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    All eligible participants were included in this analysis. The percent of participants with Mycobacteria tuberculosis (MTB)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) was calculated with an associated standard error.
  • Percent of Participants With HIV IRIS. [ Time Frame: Through week 48 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    All eligible participants were included in this analysis. The percent of participants with HIV-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) was calculated with an associated standard error.
  • Percent of Participants Whose HIV Viral Load Was Less Than 400 Copies/mL at Week 48. [ Time Frame: Through week 48 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    All eligible participants were included in the analysis. Participants who were lost-to-follow-up (LFU) prior to week 48 or who were alive with a HIV viral load at least 400 copies/mL were grouped separately those those who died or who had HIV viral loads below 400 copies/mL. Participants missing HIV viral loads at week 48 were coded as LFU in this analysis. Percents were calculated with associated standard errors.
Not Provided
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
Immediate Versus Deferred Start of Anti-HIV Therapy in HIV-Infected Adults Being Treated for Tuberculosis
A Strategy Study of Immediate Versus Deferred Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy for AIDS Disease-Free Survival in HIV-Infected Persons Treated for Tuberculosis With CD4 Less Than 250 Cells/mm^3

The purpose of this study is to determine the best time to begin anti-HIV treatment in individuals who have HIV and tuberculosis (TB).

Study hypothesis: Immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART), initiated after approximately 2 weeks of TB treatment, will reduce the frequency of other AIDS-defining illnesses and death in HIV-infected participants being treated for TB by at least 40% at week 48 when compared to deferred ART, initiated at after 8-12 weeks of TB treatment.

Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important co-infection in the HIV epidemic; the bi-directional relationship between the two diseases is well established. HIV increases the risk for TB acquisition, reactivation, and reinfection, and reduces survival compared to patients with TB alone. In individuals with HIV, TB infection results in reduced survival, increased risk for opportunistic infections, and elevations in HIV replication. Improving the outcome of HIV-infected individuals who develop TB is of high importance. Initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) shortly after initiating TB treatment may improve outcomes in individuals co-infected with HIV and TB. However, data to support this suggestion were limited before this study began. This study will determine the most appropriate time to initiate ART in HIV-infected individuals who recently initiated treatment for TB.

This study lasted 48 weeks and comprised two steps. At study entry, participants underwent clinical assessment, drug adherence training, and blood collection. In Step 1, participants were randomly assigned to one of two arms. Participants in Arm A initiated ART after approximately 2 weeks of TB treatment. Participants in Arm B deferred ART until after 8 to 12 weeks of TB treatment. In Step 2, Arm B participants initiated ART; Arm A participants did not enter Step 2. ART consisted of efavirenz (EFV) and emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF); FTC and TDF could be given as individual agents. Drug substitutions could be made for participants who could not tolerate the specified regimen. Blood collection and clinical assessments occurred at weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 32, 40, and 48.

Interventional
Phase 4
Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
  • HIV Infection
  • Tuberculosis
  • Other: Strategy: Immediate ART
    The intervention is the strategy of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) after approximately 2 weeks of rifampin (RIF)- or other rifamycin-based TB treatment according to in-country national TB treatment guidelines. The study-provided ART is efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg (1 tablet orally), emtricitabine (FTC) 200 mg (1 capsule orally), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) 300 mg (1 tablet orally) daily. Substitutions with other locally available U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or tentatively approved antiretrovirals that are compatible with TB treatment may be used at the discretion of the site investigator. The TB treatment will be supplied and monitored by the host country TB control program.
  • Other: Strategy: Deferred ART
    The intervention is the strategy of initiating ART either after 8-12 weeks of RIF- or other rifamycin-based TB treatment according to in-country national TB treatment guidelines. The study-provided ART is EFV 600 mg (1 tablet orally), FTC 200 mg (1 capsule orally), and TDF 300 mg (1 tablet orally) daily. Initiation outside of these windows, on a case by case basis, is permitted at the discretion of the site investigator. Substitutions with other locally available U.S. FDA-approved or tentatively approved antiretrovirals that are compatible with TB treatment may be used at the discretion of the site investigator. The TB treatment will be supplied and monitored by the host country TB control program.
    Other Name: Early ART
  • Experimental: Immediate ART
    The intervention is the strategy of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) after approximately 2 weeks of tuberculosis (TB) treatment.
    Intervention: Other: Strategy: Immediate ART
  • Active Comparator: Deferred ART
    The intervention is the strategy of initiating ART after 8 to 12 weeks of TB treatment.
    Intervention: Other: Strategy: Deferred ART
Havlir DV, Kendall MA, Ive P, Kumwenda J, Swindells S, Qasba SS, Luetkemeyer AF, Hogg E, Rooney JF, Wu X, Hosseinipour MC, Lalloo U, Veloso VG, Some FF, Kumarasamy N, Padayatchi N, Santos BR, Reid S, Hakim J, Mohapi L, Mugyenyi P, Sanchez J, Lama JR, Pape JW, Sanchez A, Asmelash A, Moko E, Sawe F, Andersen J, Sanne I; AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5221. Timing of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection and tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 20;365(16):1482-91. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1013607.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Completed
809
July 2010
July 2010   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • HIV-infected.
  • Confirmed or probable TB (more information on the criterion can be found in the protocol).
  • Chest x-ray within 30 days prior to study entry.
  • Receipt of 1-14 cumulative days of rifampin- or other rifamycin-based TB treatment that was initiated within 28 days prior to study entry.
  • CD4 count less than 250 cells/mm^3 within 30 days prior to study entry.
  • Willing to use acceptable methods of contraception while on study drugs and for 6 weeks after stopping these drugs.
  • Able to swallow oral medications.
  • Parent of guardian willing to provide informed consent, if applicable.
  • Karnofsky performance score =>20 at time of study entry.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • ART for longer than 7 cumulative days prior to study entry or treatment for any period of time with one or more antiretrovirals. Participants who have taken ART during pregnancy or for occupational exposure are not excluded.
  • Allergy or sensitivity to any of the study drugs or their formulations.
  • History of multidrug-resistant TB.
  • Receipt of any investigational therapy or chemotherapy within 30 days prior to study entry.
  • Certain medications.
  • Breastfeeding.
Both
13 Years and older
No
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
United States,   Botswana,   Brazil,   Haiti,   India,   Kenya,   Malawi,   Peru,   South Africa,   Thailand,   Uganda,   Zambia,   Zimbabwe
 
NCT00108862
ACTG A5221, 1U01AI068636, ACTG A5221
Yes
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Study Chair: Diane Havlir, MD San Francisco General Hospital and University of California, San Francisco
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
July 2012

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP