Trial record 2 of 2 for:    ACTG 5175

Prospective Evaluation of Anti-retroviral Combinations for Treatment Naive, HIV Infected Persons in Resource-limited Settings (PEARLS)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by:
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00084136
First received: June 7, 2004
Last updated: August 10, 2011
Last verified: August 2011

June 7, 2004
August 10, 2011
May 2005
May 2010   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
  • Time to Treatment Failure (PI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Virologic failure starting 14 weeks following randomization; disease progression starting 12 weeks following randomization; and death occurring at any time following randomization. Follow-up until ddI+FTC+ATV arm closed (May 22, 2008). ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Time from randomization to the earliest of: scheduled week of first plasma sample meeting virologic failure (two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values 1,000 copies/mL or higher, regardless of whether ARV medications being taken at the time); scheduled week of first AIDS defining diagnosis (WHO Stage 4 (2005), plus microsporidiosis, cyclospora gastroenteritis and Chaga's disease), not attributed to Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (reviewed by chairs); date of death (due to any cause). Plasma drawn every 8 weeks (except confirmation samples could be drawn earlier).
  • Time to Treatment Failure (NRTI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Virologic failure starting 14 weeks following randomization; disease progression starting 12 weeks following randomization; and death occurring at any time following randomization. Follow-up through study closure (May 31, 2010). ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Time from randomization to the earliest of: scheduled week of first plasma sample meeting virologic failure (two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values 1,000 copies/mL or higher, regardless of whether ARV medications being taken at the time); scheduled week of first AIDS defining diagnosis (WHO Stage 4 (2005) plus microsporidiosis, cyclospora gastroenteritis and Chaga's disease), not attributed to Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (reviewed by chairs); date of death (due to any cause). Plasma drawn every 8 weeks (except confirmation samples could be drawn earlier).
Not Provided
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00084136 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
  • Time to Discontinuation of Initial Antiretroviral (ARV) Therapy (PI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Throughout follow-up until ddI+FTC+ATV arm closed (May 22,2008) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Time is measured from date of treatment initiation to earliest of the following: date of last participant contact (premature discontinuation of study follow-up); date all ARV medications were held (if all medications held for at least 8 weeks, for any reason); date that any ARV medication was changed (excluding the following single ARV substitutions: stavudine or tenofovir for zidovudine, nevirapine for efavirenz, or didanosine for tenofovir).
  • Time to Immunologic Failure (PI Comparison) [ Time Frame: At or after Week 48 (including only follow-up until ddI+FTV+ATV arm closed - May 22,2008) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Time from randomization to the first scheduled study visit (week 48 or later) with a CD4+ cell count fewer than 100 cells/mm3.
  • Change in CD4 Count From Screening to Weeks 24, 48, 96 (PI Comparison) [ Time Frame: weeks 24, 48 and 96 (including follow-up until ddI+FTC+ARV arm closed - May 22, 2008) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Available pre-randomization CD4 cell counts were limited to the single CD4 cell count used for study eligibility (and therefore must have been fewer than 300 cells/mm3).
  • Time to First Dose Modification or Grade 3 or 4 Adverse Event (PI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Throughout study follow-up until ddI+FTC+ATV arm closed (May 22, 2008) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Time from treatment dispensation to the first occurring of the following: week of first ARV medication change; week of first grade 3 or higher sign/symptom or laboratory abnormality (total bilirubin was excluded) that was at least one grade higher than baseline. Grading used the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) 2004 Severity of Adverse Events Tables.
  • Plasma HIV-1 Viral Load Fewer Than 400 Copies/ml (PI Comparison) [ Time Frame: At Weeks 24 and 48 (including only follow-up until ddI+FTC+ARV arm closed - May 22, 2008) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of participants with plasma HIV-1 Viral load fewer than 400 copies/mL at study visit weeks 24 and 48. Closest observed result between 20 and up to 28 weeks (for week 24), and between 44 and up to 52 (for week 48) used if multiple results available. Missing values excluded, and both study treatment status and history ignored.
  • Time to Loss of Virologic Response by Week 48 (Defined by FDA TLOVR Algorithm - Excluding Study Allowed ARV Substitutions)(PI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Week 48 (using follow-up only until closing of ddI+FTV+ATV arm on May 22,2008) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Time from randomization to any of the following events occurring prior to week 48: discontinued ARV regimen (see time to discontinuation of initial ARV therapy above); discontinued study follow-up or died; absence of virologic suppression defined as 2 consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values < 400 copies/mL; two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values > 400 copies/mL following virologic suppression.
  • Time to Loss of Virologic Response at Week 48 (Defined by FDA TLOVR Algorithm - Including All ARV Substitutions)(PI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Week 48 (using follow-up only until closing of ddI+FTV+ATV arm on May 22,2008) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Time from randomization to any of the following events occurring prior to week 48: changed any ARV medication (including permanent discontinuation of all medications); discontinued study follow-up or died; absence of virologic suppression defined as 2 consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values < 400 copies/mL; two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values > 400 copies/mL following virologic suppression.
  • Time to Discontinuation of Initial Antiretroviral (ARV) Therapy (NRTI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Throughout follow-up until study closed (May 31,2010) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Time is measured from date of treatment initiation to earliest of the following: date of last participant contact (premature discontinuation of study follow-up); date all ARV medications were held (if all medications held for at least 8 weeks, for any reason); date that any ARV medication was changed (excluding the following single ARV substitutions: stavudine or tenofovir for zidovudine, nevirapine for efavirenz, or didanosine for tenofovir).
  • Time to Immunologic Failure (NRTI Comparison) [ Time Frame: At or after Week 48 (including all follow-up through study closure - May 31,2010) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Time from randomization to the first scheduled study visit (week 48 or later) with a CD4+ cell count fewer than 100 cells/mm3.
  • Change in CD4 Count From Screening to Weeks 24, 48, 96 (NRTI Comparison) [ Time Frame: weeks 24, 48 and 96 (including all follow-up through to study closure on May 31, 2010) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Available pre-randomization CD4 cell counts were limited to the single CD4 cell count used for study eligibility (and therefore must have been fewer than 300 cells/mm3).
  • Plasma HIV-1 Viral Load Fewer Than 400 Copies/ml (NRTI Comparison) [ Time Frame: At Weeks 24 and 48 (including follow-up through to study closure on May 31, 2010) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of participants with plasma HIV-1 Viral load fewer than 400 copies/mL at study visit weeks 24 and 48. Closest observed result between 20 and up to 28 weeks (for week 24), and between 44 and up to 52 (for week 48) used if multiple results available. Missing values excluded, and both study treatment status and history ignored.
  • Time to Loss of Virologic Response at Week 48 (Defined by FDA TLOVR Algorithm - Excluding Study Allowed ARV Substitutions)(NRTI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Week 48 (using follow-up through study closure on May 31,2010) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Time from randomization to any of the following events occurring prior to week 48: discontinued ARV regimen (see time to discontinuation of initial ARV therapy above); discontinued study follow-up or died; absence of virologic suppression defined as 2 consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values < 400 copies/mL; two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values > 400 copies/mL following virologic suppression.
  • Time to Loss of Virologic Response at Week 96 (Defined by FDA TLOVR Algorithm - Excluding Study Allowed ARV Substitutions)(NRTI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Week 96 (using follow-up through to study closure on May 31,2010) ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Time from randomization to any of the following events occurring prior to week 96: discontinued ARV regimen (see time to discontinuation of initial ARV therapy above); discontinued study follow-up or died; absence of virologic suppression defined as 2 consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values < 400 copies/mL; two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values > 400 copies/mL following virologic suppression.
  • Time to Loss of Virologic Response at Week 48 (Defined by FDA TLOVR Algorithm - Including All ARV Substitutions)(NRTI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Week 48 using follow-up through study closure on May 31,2010 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Time from randomization to any of the following events occurring prior to week 48: changed any ARV medication (including permanent discontinuation of all medications); discontinued study follow-up or died; absence of virologic suppression defined as 2 consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values < 400 copies/mL; two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values > 400 copies/mL following virologic suppression.
  • Time to Loss of Virologic Response at Week 96 (Defined by FDA TLOVR Algorithm - Including All ARV Substitutions)(NRTI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Week 96 using follow-up through study closure on May 31,2010 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Time to any of the following events occurring prior to week 96: changed any ARV medication (including permanent discontinuation of all medications); discontinued study follow-up or died; absence of virologic suppression defined as 2 consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values < 400 copies/mL; two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA values > 400 copies/mL following virologic suppression.
  • Time to First Dose Modification or Grade 3 or 4 Adverse Event (NRTI Comparison) [ Time Frame: Throughout study follow-up until study closure (May 31, 2010) ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Time from treatment dispensation to the first occurring of the following: week of first ARV medication change; week of first grade 3 or higher sign/symptom or laboratory abnormality (total bilirubin was excluded) that was at least one grade higher than baseline. Grading used the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) 2004 Severity of Adverse Events Tables.
Not Provided
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
Prospective Evaluation of Anti-retroviral Combinations for Treatment Naive, HIV Infected Persons in Resource-limited Settings
Randomized, Open-Label Evaluation of Efficacy of Once-Daily Protease Inhibitor and Once-Daily Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Containing Therapy Combinations for Initial Treatment of HIV-1 Infected Persons From Resource-Limited Settings (PEARLS) Trial

This study compared 3 different three-drug combinations in HIV infected individuals starting their first HIV treatment regimens. Participants were recruited from resource-limited areas in Africa, Asia, South America, Haiti, and also from the United States. The study hypothesis was each of the once daily combinations (PI based, or NNRTI based) would not have inferior efficacy compared to the twice daily NNRTI based combination.

In developed countries, standard effective antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for treatment-naive HIV infected people includes three-drug combinations of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) with either a protease inhibitor (PI) or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). However, direct comparisons of ARV efficacy in persons that more closely reflect the worldwide demographics of HIV-1 infection are needed.

>

> Trial participants were recruited in Africa (Malawi, South Africa, Zimbabwe), Asia (India, Thailand), South America (Brazil, Peru), Haiti, and the United States.

>

> All participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms, and random allocation was stratified by 2 factors: country, and screening plasma HIV-1 RNA level (< 100,000 copies/mL versus >= 100,000 copies/mL). Participants assigned to the ZDV/3TC+EFV arm received lamivudine/zidovudine twice daily and efavirenz once daily. Participants assigned to the ddI+FTC+ATV arm received emtricitabine, atazanavir, and enteric-coated didanosine once daily. Participants assigned to the TDF/FTC+EFV arm received emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, and efavirenz once daily.

>

>

> Physical exam and blood collection occurred at entry and at most study visits. Participants experiencing virologic failure were offered a switch to another regimen.

>

> On May 23, 2008, the ddI+FTC+ATV was closed following a planned interim review by the study's independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). The DSMB recommendation was based upon compelling evidence that this arm had significantly more virologic failure (and therefore was inferior when) compared to the ZDV/3TC+EFV arm . Participants still receiving ddI+FTC+ATV were offered alternative medications, and all participants continued to be followed.

>

> On November 3, 2009, the DSMB recommended that the study close to all follow-up on May 31, 2010, before the designed termination (based on 30% of participants meeting the primary outcome) was met. The board observed that the recent accumulation of primary efficacy events (i.e. regimen failures) was very slow. Therefore, if the study were to continue another 1-2 years, the precision gained for treatment comparisons would likely be small.

Interventional
Phase 4
Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
HIV Infections
  • Drug: Atazanavir
    400 mg taken orally daily
    Other Name: ATV
  • Drug: Didanosine (enteric-coated)
    400 mg taken orally daily
    Other Name: ddI
  • Drug: Efavirenz
    600 mg taken orally daily
    Other Name: EFV
  • Drug: Emtricitabine
    200 mg taken orally daily
    Other Name: FTC
  • Drug: Emtricitabine/Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
    200 mg/300 mg taken orally once daily
    Other Name: FTC/TDF
  • Drug: Lamivudine/Zidovudine
    150 mg/300 mg taken orally twice daily
    Other Name: 3TC/ZDV
  • Experimental: ZDV/3TC+EFV
    ZDV/3TC+EFV participants will receive lamivudine/zidovudine and efavirenz
    Interventions:
    • Drug: Efavirenz
    • Drug: Lamivudine/Zidovudine
  • Experimental: ddI+FTC+ATV
    ddI+FTC+ATV participants will receive emtricitabine, atazanavir, and enteric-coated didanosine
    Interventions:
    • Drug: Atazanavir
    • Drug: Didanosine (enteric-coated)
    • Drug: Emtricitabine
  • Experimental: TDF/FTC+EFV
    TDF/FTC+EFV participants will receive emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and efavirenz
    Interventions:
    • Drug: Efavirenz
    • Drug: Emtricitabine/Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Completed
1571
May 2010
May 2010   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria :

  • HIV-1 infected
  • CD4 count fewer than 300 cells/mm3
  • Viral load test result
  • Absolute Neutrophil Count at least 750mm3
  • Hemoglobin at least 7.5 g/dL
  • Platelet count at least 50,000/mm3
  • Calculated creatinine clearance at least 60 mL/min
  • A , A, and alkaline phosphatase <= 5 times upper limit of normal
  • total bilirubin <= 2.5 times upper limit of normal
  • Karnofsky performance score of 70 or higher
  • Plans to stay in the area for the duration of the study
  • Agrees to use acceptable forms of contraception for the duration of the study

Exclusion Criteria:

  • More than 7 days exposure to ARVs (except for single-dose NVP or ZDV for any period for the purpose of pMTCT)
  • Acute therapy for serious medical illnesses within 14 days prior to study entry
  • Certain abnormal laboratory values
  • Radiation therapy or chemotherapy within 45 days prior to study entry.
  • Any immunomodulator, HIV vaccine, or other investigational therapy within 30 days prior to study entry.
  • Current alcohol or drug abuse that, in the opinion of the site investigator, would interfere with study participation
  • Inflamed pancreas within 3 years prior to study entry
  • Allergy/sensitivity to any of the study drugs or their formulations
  • Heart rate less than 40 beats/min
  • History of untreated, active second- or third-degree heart block
  • Currently detained in jail or for treatment of a psychiatric or physical illness
  • Vomiting or inability to swallow medications
  • Pregnancy
Both
18 Years and older
No
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Peru,   United States,   Thailand,   Malawi,   India,   South Africa,   Brazil,   Haiti,   Zimbabwe
 
NCT00084136
ACTG A5175, 1U01AI068636, PEARLS, A5185s, 5-K24-AI051966-03
Yes
Daniel R. Kuritzkes, M.D., Social & Scientific Systems, Inc.
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Study Chair: Thomas B. Campbell, MD University of Colorado, Denver
Study Chair: Timothy Flanigan, MD The Miriam Hospital
Study Chair: James Hakim, MscClinEpi, FRCP Department of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe
Study Chair: Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, MD Centre for AIDS Research and Education
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
August 2011

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP