Genetic Causes of Panic Disorder
|First Received Date ICMJE||May 15, 2004|
|Last Updated Date||March 14, 2014|
|Start Date ICMJE||May 2004|
|Primary Completion Date||Not Provided|
|Current Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Original Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Change History||Complete list of historical versions of study NCT00083265 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site|
|Current Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Original Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Current Other Outcome Measures ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Original Other Outcome Measures ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Brief Title ICMJE||Genetic Causes of Panic Disorder|
|Official Title ICMJE||Association Between Adenosine Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Physiological Responses to Caffeine in Subjects With Panic Disorder and Healthy Controls|
This study will try to identify genes that increase the risk of developing panic disorder-an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent unexpected panic attacks-and that contribute to the abnormalities associated with it. It will compare reactions in patients with panic disorder and in normal volunteers to caffeine, a compound that can induce anxiety, and to placebo, an inactive substance. Caffeine is believed to induce anxiety by blocking proteins called adenosine receptors on the surface of nerve cells in the brain. One study found that people with a specific adenosine receptor gene called 1976T/T had greater anxiety in response to caffeine challenge than did people with other adenosine receptor gene groups. There is also evidence that people with the 1976T/T genotype are more vulnerable to having panic disorder.
Normal volunteers and patients with panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia) who are between 18 and 60 years of age may be eligible for this study. Candidates are screened with physical and psychiatric examinations, a diagnostic interview, mood and anxiety ratings, an electrocardiogram, and blood and urine tests, including genetic studies.
Participants have two caffeine/placebo challenge sessions at least 3 days apart. Each session lasts about 4 hours. For at least 1 week before each session, subjects follow a diet excluding foods with caffeine and refrain from drinking alcoholic beverages for at least 48 hours before the procedure. The morning of the session, following an overnight fast, subjects swallow either a placebo capsule or a caffeine capsule that is equivalent to about 5 cups of coffee. During the session, subjects take a battery of neuropsychological tests to document changes in cognitive and emotional functioning, including attention, memory, and motor performance. In addition, heart rate and blood pressure are measured 15 minutes before and 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes after the caffeine or placebo dose.
At the end of the study, patients with panic disorder are eligible to receive routine clinical treatment for up to 3 months and may participate in planning for long-term treatment under the care of their local health care provider.
Caffeine, the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world, exerts its behavioral effects by antagonizing adenosine receptors (AR). Four different human AR subtypes have been found and there is evidence that the stimulatory effect of caffeine is mainly caused by an inhibition of transmission via adenosine A(2a) receptors. A significant association has been found in healthy infrequent caffeine users between caffeine-induced anxiety and two linked polymorphisms on the A(2a) receptor gene, the 1976C greater than T and 2592C greater than Tins polymorphisms. In one study looking at monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, there was much evidence that individual differences in caffeine use, intoxication, tolerance, and withdrawal were substantially influenced by genetic factors. Family and twin studies have shown that genetic factors may increase vulnerability to panic disorder. In one study a systematic mutation screening and association study of the A(1) and A(2a) adenosine receptor genes in panic disorder showed a significant association between the 1976T allele and 1976T/T genotype of the A(2a) receptor gene and panic disorder. As the 1976T/T genotype of the A(2a) receptor gene has been associated with both increased caffeine-induced anxiety in healthy controls, and has been associated with increased vulnerability to panic disorder, we wish to study whether the 1976T/T genotype in panic disorder patients is associated with increased caffeine-induced anxiety.
This study will study subjects with panic disorder and healthy controls. Based on previous studies the following hypotheses will be tested (2 replication and 2 new hypotheses): Replication; (1) panic disorder subjects will report higher anxiety after a caffeine challenge than the healthy control subjects. (2) healthy controls with the1976 T/T polymorphism will report increased anxiety after a caffeine challenge compared to healthy controls with the 1976 C/T and 1976 C/C genotypes, New hypotheses; (3) panic patients (two separate groups: currently ill and remitted) with the 1976 T/T polymorphism will report increased anxiety after a caffeine challenge compared to panic patients with the 1976 C/T and 1976 C/C genotypes, (4) panic patients (two separate groups: currently ill and remitted) with the 1976 T/T polymorphism will report increased anxiety after a caffeine challenge compared to healthy controls with the 1976 T/T polymorphism will report increased anxiety after a caffeine challenge compared to healthy controls with the 1976 T/T genotype.
|Study Type ICMJE||Observational|
|Study Design ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Target Follow-Up Duration||Not Provided|
|Sampling Method||Not Provided|
|Study Population||Not Provided|
|Condition ICMJE||Panic Disorder|
|Intervention ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Study Group/Cohort (s)||Not Provided|
* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
|Recruitment Status ICMJE||Completed|
|Completion Date||Not Provided|
|Primary Completion Date||Not Provided|
|Eligibility Criteria ICMJE||
|Ages||18 Years to 60 Years|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers||No|
|Contacts ICMJE||Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects|
|Location Countries ICMJE||United States|
|NCT Number ICMJE||NCT00083265|
|Other Study ID Numbers ICMJE||040183, 04-M-0183|
|Has Data Monitoring Committee||Not Provided|
|Responsible Party||Not Provided|
|Study Sponsor ICMJE||National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)|
|Collaborators ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Information Provided By||National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)|
|Verification Date||August 2013|
ICMJE Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP