Impact of Timolol/Dorzolamide Therapy on Autoregulation in Glaucoma Patients

This study is currently recruiting participants. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified January 2014 by Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT02053298
First received: January 31, 2014
Last updated: NA
Last verified: January 2014
History: No changes posted
  Purpose

Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy in which the main risk factor is intraocular pressure (IOP). However, a number of patients still show signs of disease progression despite an otherwise normal IOP value. The search for other variables involved in glaucoma pathogenesis and progression has identified both systemic and ocular signs of vascular dysfunction in glaucoma patients, such as migraine, peripheral vasospasm, systemic hypotension and cerebral microvascular ischemia. Ocular blood flow studies using Color Doppler Imaging (CDI) technology has demonstrated blood velocities and increased vascular resistance (RI) to exist in such patients when compared to healthy controls. However, a CDI examination provides far more additional information, such as arterial pulsatility (PI) and mean blood velocities (MFV). While these have been used for decades now to study cerebral arteries vasoreactivity, little is known about how these variables are changed in glaucoma patients. We have recently demonstrated that these variables can be used to identify a change in the normal vascular activity when there is increased resistance. In glaucoma patients, a cutpoint in RI of the retrobulbar arteries could be determined beyond which PI increased significantly. This sharp increase in the PI has been used as an indirect signal that the vessel's ability to buffer a decreased perfusion pressure has been surpassed. The normal response to a decreased perfusion in a vascular territory with autoregulation is an increase in dilation in the downstream microcirculation, increasing cross section area in an attempt to keep a steady MFV. As PI is calculated using the vessel's MFV [PI = (PSV-EDV)/MFV], it is highly sensitive to changes in this variable. As such, the cutpoints we have identified in glaucoma patients are therefore an indirect assessment of the vessel's autoregulation limit. Interestingly, the cutpoints in the RI identified in our study are very similar to what other authors have suggested to represent a risk factor for increased disease progression (ophthalmic artery RI = 0.82), thus suggesting vascular reactivity to be of clinical importance in glaucoma management.

While our data could provide the rational as to why these RI values are associated with progression, the clinical question arises as to whether these cutpoints can be modulated by topical glaucoma therapy. As some medications such as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have been found to have a positive effect in disease progression in what appears to be a non-IOP related effect, we considered the hypothesis that these drugs could have a positive impact on the ocular's microcirculation vasoactive response, potentially enabling to keep a steady MFV into higher values of vascular resistance.


Condition Intervention Phase
Open Angle Glaucoma
Drug: Administration of timolol 0.5% + dorzolamide 2% bid
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Impact of Timolol/Dorzolamide Therapy on Autoregulation in Glaucoma Patients

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Retrobulbar vascular resistance cutpoint change [ Time Frame: 2 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The retrobulbar vascular resistance point at which the pulsatility changes will be measured before (baseline), under topical timolol 0.5% and under topical timolol 0.5+dorzolamide 2%


Estimated Enrollment: 30
Study Start Date: January 2014
Estimated Study Completion Date: May 2015
Estimated Primary Completion Date: May 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Timolol & Dorzolamide
Topical preservative-free fixed combination of timolol 0.5%+dorzolamide 2% bid for 1 month
Drug: Administration of timolol 0.5% + dorzolamide 2% bid
Other Name: Cosopt UD

Detailed Description:

Patients will be recruited from the glaucoma clinic at the department of Ophthalmology in the Leuven University Hospital.

General study setup:

Two cohorts of subjects will be included in the study: primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal tension glaucoma (NTG) patients. At the screening visit, eligible patients will have their topical therapy replaced by timolol 0.5% bid. At week 4, dorzolamide 2% will be added to the existing treatment in a fixed combination therapy (timolol 0.5%+dorzolamide 2% bid). A final visit at week 8.

At the screening visit (day 0), the patients will undergo a complete ophthalmic investigation with visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, 90 D fundoscopy, automated perimetry, Heidelberg retinal tomography and color Doppler imaging. Blood pressure will also be measured. Topical monotherapy will be replaced by timolol 0.5% bid.

At visit 1 and 2 (timolol - week 4, timolol+dorzolamide week 8, respectively), the patients will undergo ophthalmic investigation with visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, 90 D fundoscopy, blood pressure measurement and color Doppler imaging.

Only one eye will be selected for the study (eye with worst glaucomatous damage). Mann-Whitney test will be used in pairwise comparisons. Restricted cubic sp-lines will be used to verify if there is any evidence for nonlinearity in the relation between the RI and PI. Piecewise linear regression models will be used to determine the optimal cutpoint (i.e. the cutpoint yielding the highest likelihood) in all three visits (baseline, timolol and timolol/dorzolamide). Sensitivity analyses will be performed to verify if the result is not due to an (influential) subject with a high RI value. All data will be expressed in mean ± standard deviation. A two sided p-value <0.05 is considered significant.

Sample size calculations were made to address the primary outcome (i.e., a change in the RI cutpoints between baseline and last study visit) in the overall glaucoma population (POAG+NTG patients). Based on our previous results10, setting an α error to 5%, power at 80% and the allowable difference at 10% would require the recruitment of 40 patients. Further post hoc analysis will be made to identify differences between the two study cohorts.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • individuals over 18 years old
  • willing to sign an informed consent and able to comply with the requirements of the study
  • having no other ocular diseases besides glaucoma associated with hemodynamic disturbances
  • being either under no topical therapy (naïve patients) or under IOP-lowering monotherapy

Exclusion Criteria:

  • history of ocular trauma
  • intraocular surgery (except for cataract surgery)
  • eye disease associated with hemodynamic disturbances (except glaucoma)
  • systemic diseases with ocular involvement like diabetes
  • contra-indications to the use of topical beta-blockers or carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02053298

Contacts
Contact: Ingeborg Stalmans, MD, PhD ingeborg.stalmans@uzleuven.be

Locations
Belgium
University Hospitals Leuven Recruiting
Leuven, Flemish Brabant, Belgium, 3000 Leuven
Principal Investigator: Ingeborg Stalmans, MD, PhD         
Sub-Investigator: Evelien Vandewalle, MD, PhD         
Sub-Investigator: Luis Abegão Pinto, MD, PhD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Ingeborg Stalmans, MD, PhD UZ Leuven
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02053298     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: S - 54854
Study First Received: January 31, 2014
Last Updated: January 31, 2014
Health Authority: Belgium: Ethics Committee

Keywords provided by Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven:
Glaucoma

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Glaucoma
Glaucoma, Open-Angle
Ocular Hypertension
Eye Diseases
Timolol
Dorzolamide
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
Adrenergic Antagonists
Adrenergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Pharmacologic Actions
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
Cardiovascular Agents
Therapeutic Uses
Antihypertensive Agents
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on July 23, 2014