Etiologies of Fever Among Adults in Dar es Salaam
Following the decline of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa, clinicians face febrile patients in whom an alternative diagnosis has to be made. This situation has led to an overuse of antibiotics by clinicians. It is crucial to increase knowledge on etiologies and risk factors of outpatient febrile illness in order to improve their management.
This present proposal aims to investigate the etiologies of fever among adult patients attending an outpatient department in urban Tanzania. It also aims to assess the clinical significance of nasopharyngeal (NP) respiratory viruses and bacteria documentation in this setting. Third, it aims to compare the spectrum of infections in this population with that of children included in the same setting in a previous study. The last objective is to assess diabetes mellitus (DM) as a risk factor for infection and exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) as a risk factor for acute respiratory infections (ARI) in adults in Tanzania.
The investigators hypothesize that acute respiratory infections are the main cause of adult febrile illness in a urban low-income setting and that use of quantitative molecular assays on naso-oropharyngeal samples can improve the diagnosis of pneumonia. The investigators also think that the spectrum of infections is different between children and adults, mainly due to a high HIV prevalence in adults. The investigators also hypothesize that experiencing IAP and/ or DM is a risk factor for infections in adults.
Acute Febrile Illnesses
|Study Type:||Observational [Patient Registry]|
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
|Target Follow-Up Duration:||30 Days|
|Official Title:||Etiologies of Acute Febrile Illness Among Adults Attending an Outpatient Department in Dar es Salaam|
- Proportion of patients with each disease among all febrile patients, overall and stratified by HIV status [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Description of the distribution of causes of fever based on pre-defined case definitions for each disease.
- Proportion of febrile patients with acute respiratory infection infected with a certain respiratory pathogen, compared to the proportion of healthy controls infected with the same pathogen. [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Nasopharyngeal respiratory viruses and bacteria documentation (presence/absence as well as pathogen loads) will be compared between patients with acute respiratory infection and a control group of healthy volunteers
- Strength of association between each febrile disease and diabetes mellitus and between acute respiratory infections and indoor air pollution [ Time Frame: 1 year ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Screening of diabetes mellitus and screening of exposure to indoor air pollution will be performed among patients with fever. The strength of association between diabetes and each type of febrile disease and exposure to indoor air pollution and acute respiratory infections will be measured.
Biospecimen Retention: Samples With DNA
Whole blood Serum Sputa Urine
|Study Start Date:||July 2013|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||July 2014|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||July 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Adults with fever
Every adult with fever will be screened for different infectious diseases and for nasopharyngeal respiratory viruses and bacteria
For every adult with fever included with a diagnosis of pneumonia, a healthy volunteer will be included. These healthy volunteers will be screened for nasopharyngeal respiratory viruses and bacteria.
|Contact: Noémie Boillat Blanco, MD||+255 email@example.com|
|Contact: Valérie D'Acremont, MD PhD||0041 79 2074355||Valerie.Dacremont@unibas.ch|
|Dar es Salaam, Tanzania|
|Contact: Zainab Mbarak, MD +255 717217771 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Contact: Mlinga Mbaruku, MD +255 714214913 email@example.com|
|Principal Investigator: Noémie Boillat Blanco, MD|
|Principal Investigator:||Valerie D'Acremont, MD PhD||Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute|