Primary Outcome Measures:
- development of significant CAS [ Time Frame: during the Ach provocation test ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
During the Ach provocation test, significant CAS was recorded when present, and we recorded whether it was associated with any of the four following criteria: 1) chest pain only during Ach provocation test 2) >70% luminal narrowing on coronary angiography and concurrent typical chest pain;3) >70% luminal narrowing on coronary angiography and/or concurrent chest pain and EKG changes(ST-segment elevation or depression ≥1mm); 4) >90% luminal narrowing induced by A3 dose on coronary angiography and/or concurrent chest pain.
Secondary Outcome Measures:
A total of consecutive patients in the CAS registry of the Cardiovascular Center at Korea University Guro Hospital and who had resting chest pain without significant coronary lesions (luminal narrowing <50%) underwent a provocation test with Ach infusion during coronary angiography from November 2004 to May 2012 will be registerd. Among them, patients with documented cardiovascular disease and/or any other serious medical condition, such as an increased serum creatinine level (>2mg/dl), will be excluded. Patients will be excluded due to incomplete data. The study population will be divided into quartiles based on rising systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure. Each group will be defined as following criteria: 1) group 1: systolic BP <117mmHg, diastolic BP <69mmHg, and pulse pressure <42mmHg; 2) group 2: systolic BP 117-130 mmHg, diastolic BP 69-77 mmHg, and pulse pressure 42-51mmHg; 3) group 3: systolic BP 131-141 mmHg, diastolic BP 78-86 mmHg, and pulse pressure 52-61mmHg; and 4) group 4: systolic BP >141 mmHg, diastolic BP >86 mmHg, and pulse pressure >61mmHg. CAS+Chest Pain means>70% luminal narrowing on Ach provocation test. and/or concurrent typical chest pain. BP was measured with a noninvasive BP monitoring device with the patient lying on the angiographic table after a five-minute rest (Patient monitoring system, NP 30:Philips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). The first reading was discarded, and the mean of the next two consecutive readings was used. Next, coronary angiography was performed. Hypertension is defined as systolic BP ≥140mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90mmHg on at least two consecutive readings in the outpatient clinic. Patients taking antihypertensive medications are also categorized as hypertensives. Other Risk factors for CAS examined in this study include hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol level ≥200mg /dl or current medication with lipid-lowering drugs), diabetes (fasting blood glucose≥126mg /dl, and/or glycated Hemoglobin A1c level more than 6.5% or current use of medications), current smoker (active smoking within the past 12 months), and current alcohol user (at least 1 alcohol drinking a week).