The MENDS II Study
Ventilated ICU patients frequently have sepsis and the majority have delirium, a form of brain dysfunction that is an independent predictor of increased risk of dying, length of stay, costs, and prolonged cognitive impairment in survivors. Universally prescribed sedative medications—the GABA-ergic benzodiazepines—worsen this brain organ dysfunction. The available alternative sedation regimens, the shorter acting GABA-ergic propofol, and the alpha2 agonist, dexmedetomidine, have both been shown to be superior to benzodiazepines, and yet are different with regard to their effects on innate immunity, bacterial clearance, apoptosis, cognition and delirium. The MENDS II study will compare propofol and dexmedetomidine, and determine the best sedative medication to reduce delirium and improve survival and long-term brain function in our most vulnerable patients— the ventilated septic patient.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
|Official Title:||Altering Sedation Paradigms to Improve Brain Injury and Survival in Severe Sepsis|
- Delirium/Coma Free Days (DCFDs) [ Time Frame: 14 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The analysis of DCFDs will be conducted using Intention-to-Treat (ITT) population, defined as all patients who were randomized to study drug. We chose a 14 day evaluation period for delirium, because it represents the best balance of gaining valuable clinical information, while maximizing resource utilization, given the average study drug infusion to be 7 days and maximum duration to be 14 days. Thus our follow-up period will cover 7 additional days of delirium monitoring after the study drug is stopped in the majority of our patients.
- Ventilator-free days (VFDs) [ Time Frame: 28 Days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Ventilator-free days (VFDs), i.e., days alive and free of MV at 28 days. This endpoint has been used by the NHLBI's ARDSNet in numerous critical care trials examining ICU populations.
- 90-day Survival [ Time Frame: 1 through 90 days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]That sedation of mechanically ventilated severely septic patients with an alpha2 agonist (dexmedetomidine) rather than a GABAergic agent (propofol) will improve 90-day survival of ICU patients.
- Decrease incidence and severity of long-term cognitive impairment [ Time Frame: 6 months after randomization ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Neuropsychological function, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental ADLs will be assessed 6 months after randomization using a validated and reliable telephone battery for post-ICU patients, to measure incidence, duration, and severity of dysfunction in memory, attention, reasoning, and executive function domains as well as assess independence and quality of life.
- Markers of Inflammation [ Time Frame: Days, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Plasma will be obtained on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14. About 30 mL of blood will be collected at each time point (150 mL max during the study). These samples will be batched analysed for the following:
- Genetic predictors of delirium duration, including, but not limited to, the apolipoprotein E4 polymorphism
- Inflammatory/coagulopathic biomarkers, (e.g., IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, CRP, sTNFR1, and HMGB1) based on their importance in sepsis and kinetic responses. Furthermore, combination of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine markers improves the predictive quality of these biomarkers for mortality.
- Other biomarkers to be determined by ongoing and future studies.
- Secondary Infections [ Time Frame: 48 Hours ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Secondary infections will be considered as any new sites of infection detected 48 hours after the original source of infection noted at enrollment. The site of infection and organism will be tracked until conclusion of the interventional trial phase.
- Organ Dysfunction [ Time Frame: 14 Days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Organ dysfunctions will be tracked until conclusion of the interventional trial phase using daily SOFA scores and continuous as well as established predefined cut offs for each organ failure: Kidney, Cr > 2 mg/dL or urine < 400 cc/day; Lung, PaO2/FiO2 <300 or SaO2/FiO2 <315; Liver, total bilirubin > 2 mg/dL; Coagulation, Platelet count < 100,000/mm3; and Hemodynamic, need for vasopressor, consistent with definitions utilized in published studies of organ dysfunction in critically ill patients.
- Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome [ Time Frame: 14 Days ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome - we will monitor a patient's oxygenation status by tracking daily SaO2/FiO2 ratios or PaO2/FiO2 ratios. Chest X-rays that are ordered as part of routine clinical care will be followed daily in patients who meet ARDS oxygenation threshold and patients with bilateral infiltrates confirmed by the medical team, will be considered to have ARDS. Time to onset of ARDS and duration of ARDS will be tracked until conclusion of the interventional trial phase.
|Study Start Date:||August 2012|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||June 2017|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||June 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: Dexmedetomidine
Route and Concentration. The study drug will be administered intravenously (IV) by continuous infusion at concentrations of 5 mcg/mL dexmedetomidine. Patients will only receive study drug while in the ICU and on mechanical ventilation, and thus will be monitored with continuous telemetry as per usual ICU practice.
Dosing Range. Study drug dose will be titrated in a double-blind manner according to clinical effect to achieve a "goal" or "target" Richmond Agitation Sedation Score set by the managing clinical team. For patients in the dexmedetomidine group, dose will range from 0.15-1.5 mcg/kg/hr.
For patients in the dexmedetomidine group, dose will range from 0.15-1.5 mcg/kg/hr. For example, a 70 kg patient would receive 10.5 mL of study drug per hour, which would provide 0.75 mcg/kg/hr of dexmedetomidine. This dose range have been selected after literature review and discussions with critical care practitioners, investigational pharmacists, and the MENDS II study steering committee.
Active Comparator: Propofol
Route and Concentration. The study drug will be administered intravenously (IV) by continuous infusion at concentrations of 10 mg/mL propofol. Patients will only receive study drug while in the ICU and on mechanical ventilation, and thus will be monitored with continuous telemetry as per usual ICU practice.
Dosing Range. Study drug dose will be titrated in a double-blind manner according to clinical effect to achieve a "goal" or "target" Richmond Agitation Sedation Score set by the managing clinical team. For patients in the propofol group, dose will range from 5-50 mcg/kg/min.
For patients in the propofol group, dose will range from 5-50 mcg/kg/min. For example, a 70 kg patient would receive 10.5 mL of study drug per hour, which would provide 25 mcg/kg/min of propofol. This dose range has been selected after literature review and discussions with critical care practitioners, investigational pharmacists, and the MENDS II study steering committee.
Other Name: Diprivan
The need for mechanical ventilation (MV) secondary to sepsis is the leading cause of admission to the intensive care unit, often necessitating sedation for patient safety and comfort. Recently, we have learned that these sedative medications contribute to iatrogenic injury, such as prolonging ventilator time and ICU length of stay and exacerbating acute brain dysfunction. This acute brain dysfunction, manifested as delirium and coma, occurs in 50%-70% of MV septic patients and is a significant contributor not only to death but also to functional and cognitive decline, which can persist for years after recovery of lung and other organ function, levying significant costs to patients and society. Despite advances in the management of acute respiratory failure and sepsis, few clinical trials have examined the effects that supportive therapies, like sedation, may have on both short- and long-term outcomes in this vulnerable population. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic benzodiazepines, in particular, have been shown to increase brain dysfunction, promote infection, and prolong MV. Therefore, the short-acting GABA-ergic sedative propofol and the alpha2 agonist dexmedetomidine are becoming widely used to sedate septic MV patients. There are only a few randomized trials, however, to guide clinicians when selecting between these and other sedatives, and none have explored the mechanisms underlying the differences in outcomes, though some data indicate that GABA-ergic and alpha2 agonist agents have very different effects on innate immunity, apoptosis, arousability, and respiratory drive. In early animal and human studies, dexmedetomidine had more anti-inflammatory effects than the GABA-ergic agents; dexmedetomidine improved bacterial clearance, whereas propofol impaired it. In addition, sedation with dexmedetomidine instead of benzodiazepines reduces delirium by 20%-30% and improves arousability, cognition, and attentiveness in ventilated patients. Alpha2 agonists induce unconsciousness at the brainstem—more akin to natural sleep—which may improve autonomic function and immunity. All these factors converge to suggest that sedation with an alpha2 agonist rather than a GABAergic agent may improve outcomes, including brain function, MV, and survival, for septic MV patients. We therefore propose the MENDS II (Maximizing the Efficacy of Sedation and Reducing Neurological Dysfunction and Mortality in Septic Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure) study, in which we will test the hypotheses that sedation of MV severely septic patients with an alpha2 agonist (dexmedetomidine) rather than a GABAergic agent (propofol) will (Aim 1A) increase days alive without delirium or coma, (Aim 1B) increase ventilator-free days, (Aim 2A) improve 90-day survival, (Aim 2B) decrease long-term cognitive impairment, and (Aim 3) reduce the pro-inflammatory cytokine cascade following sepsis. We will randomize 530 ventilated, severely septic patients requiring goal-directed sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol, giving the study 90% power to detect a difference of 1.5 delirium/coma-free days and an absolute difference in mortality of 10% between the two groups.
|Contact: Pratik P. Pandharipande, MD, MSCIfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Contact: Christopher G. Hughes, MDemail@example.com|
|United States, California|
|University of California, San Francisco||Active, not recruiting|
|San Francisco, California, United States, 94143|
|United States, Massachusetts|
|Baystate Medical Center||Active, not recruiting|
|Springfield, Massachusetts, United States, 01107|
|United States, Michigan|
|Henry Ford Health System||Active, not recruiting|
|Detroit, Michigan, United States, 48202|
|United States, Tennessee|
|Vanderbilt University Medical Center||Recruiting|
|Nashville, Tennessee, United States, 37232-8300|
|Contact: Pratik P. Pandharipande, MD, MSCI 615-343-6268 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Contact: Christopher G. Hughes, MD 615-343-6268|
|United States, Texas|
|University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio||Active, not recruiting|
|San Antonio, Texas, United States, 78229|
|Principal Investigator:||Pratik P. Pandharipande, MD, MSCI||Vanderbilt University|