Behavioral Contract Adherence Intervention
There is a critical gap in the knowledge on how to implement effective interventions for renal transplant recipients (RTRs) to improve immunosuppressant therapy (IST) adherence and clinical outcomes. The objectives of this project were to address this gap through: (1) designing, implementing, and evaluating a patient-specific behavioral contract intervention to improve RTRs' IST adherence rates (contracts are written, signed agreements between the RTR and healthcare provider in which the RTR agrees to be adherent to IST according to mutually agreed upon criteria); and (2) measuring the effects of IST adherence on RTRs' health-related quality of life (HQoL) and healthcare utilizations and costs. The primary hypothesis was that at one year post trial enrollment, RTRs who establish behavioral contracts with healthcare professionals will be more adherent than those who do not establish behavioral contracts and subsequently will have greater HQoL and lower healthcare utilizations and costs. Once it is better understood how to implement effective IST adherence intervention programs, clinicians will have a valuable tool to promote therapeutic success, improve HQoL, and reduce healthcare utilizations and costs. Therefore, we pursued the following Specific Aims: (1) determine the effectiveness of an IST adherence contract-based intervention on IST adherence; (2) determine the relationship between IST adherence, the intervention, and RTRs' HQoL; and (3) determine the influence of IST adherence and the intervention on RTRs' healthcare utilizations/costs. To achieve the Specific Aims, a randomized controlled trial of the patient-specific behavioral contract-based intervention was conducted, and data regarding adherence, HQoL, and healthcare utilizations/costs were collected over a 12-month period for each RTR study participant and analyzed. This project will promote healthy lives, increase well-being, and reduce burden of illness and disparity among adult RTRs by providing data regarding an adherence intervention and the impact of IST adherence and the behavioral contract intervention on RTRs' health and economic outcomes and HQoL. Collectively, this new knowledge will provide critical steps toward optimizing RTRs' graft maintenance, productivity, and HQoL, while decreasing graft rejection, return to dialysis, morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Supportive Care
|Official Title:||Behavioral Contract Intervention to Improve Adherence Among Renal Transplant Recipients|
- Comparison of Average Immunosuppressant Therapy Adherence for 12-month Study Period [ Time Frame: 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Immunosuppressant therapy adherence as measured by pharmacy refill records. Adherence was calculated quarterly for one year by using the number of days between prescription (IST) refills. If the total number of days between refills was less than or equal to the total days' supply of IST, the participant's adherence rate was 1.0, or 100%. If the number of days between refills was greater than the days' supply, the adherence rate was calculated as follows:
1 - [(Days Between Refills - Total Days Supply)/Days Between Refills] = Adherence Rate for Quarterly Time Period
At the end of the 12-month study period, the quarterly adherence rates were averaged to produce an overall adherence rate for the study period.
- Health-related Quality of Life (HQoL) [ Time Frame: 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The EQ-5D is a multi-attribute, preference-based HQoL instrument. Considered a global HQoL measure, the EQ-5D is a descriptive system that classifies respondents into one of 243 distinct health states based on five dimensions (i.e., mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression). Each dimension has three levels, reflecting "no problems," "some problems," and "extreme problems." A scoring function assigns a value (EQ-5DIndex score) to self-reported health states from a set of preference weights that have been empirically derived. The EQ-5D's total scale (preference value) range is from 0 to 1.0. On this scale, the preference value of 1.0 represents perfect health and 0.0 represents death. Preference values less than 0 are possible, but not reflected on the scale, and reflect health states that the U.S. population consider worse than death.
- Days in Hospital [ Time Frame: 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
We used a standardized patient reporting approach to collect direct healthcare utilizations data, including days in hospital. A brief healthcare screening questionnaire was administered to both the intervention and control groups on a monthly basis during the one-year study period. Monthly recall periods were chosen to minimize bias and forgetfulness. The questionnaire collected the number of times each month a participant utilized a direct medical service, specifically, days in hospital, emergency department (ED) visit, outpatient visit (clinic, physician office), and home healthcare visit.
Analysis compared proportion of each group who had at least one day in hospital during the 12-month study period.
|Study Start Date:||January 2010|
|Study Completion Date:||June 2013|
|Primary Completion Date:||September 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Intervention Group
Behavioral contract intervention
Behavioral: Behavioral Contract
Intervention activities were performed by a study clinical pharmacist. Behavioral contract goal was achieving and maintaining IST adherence. Other components of the contract addressed: (a) motivation(s) or positive reinforcement for achieving IST adherence; (b) problems or barriers that may interfere with achieving IST adherence and possible solutions to overcome problems/barriers; (c) social support available to the RTR such as a significant other who may assist the RTR in following the IST dosing schedule; (d) tools/strategies the RTR may use to remind himself/herself to follow the IST dosing schedule; and (e) possible consequences of IST nonadherence (e.g., graft loss).
No Intervention: Control Group
|United States, Arizona|
|University of Arizona College of Pharmacy|
|Tucson, Arizona, United States, 85721|
|Principal Investigator:||Marie A Chisholm-Burns, PharmD||University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy|