Effects of Genistein in Postmenopausal Women With Metabolic Syndrome
The 15-25% of the population of developed countries suffers for metabolic syndrome. It is associated with a 2-4 fold increase in cardiovascular morbility and mortality and with a 5- 9 fold increase in developing type II diabetes. MS prevalence increases after the onset of menopause, because of estrogen deficiency. It is still not clear if menopause itself increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases in al women or only in those that develop MS. Many MS patients that show slight modification in cardiovascular and metabolic parameters are not generally pharmacologically treated since diabetes or alteration in the lipid profile are not evidenced. In this respect it is of importance to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat MS. Genistein (4,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), shown a potentially preventive role on the cardiovascular apparatus in post-menopausal women, may be termed as selective ER modulator (SERM), since it reveals both ER-alpha full agonist and ER-beta partial agonist activity.
Dietary Supplement: Genistein
Dietary Supplement: Placebo
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Role of Genistein on Metabolic Syndrome in Post-menopausal Women|
- homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) [ Time Frame: change from baseline at 6 and 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]HOMA-IR was calculated using the following formula: fasting glucose (mg/dl) X fasting insulin (uIU/ml)/22.5.
- body mass index [ Time Frame: basal, 6 and 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The body mass index (BMI) is calculated by dividing the weight measured in kilograms by the square of the height measured in metres [i.e. BMI = Weight (kg)/ Height (m)]2.
- Blood pressure [ Time Frame: basal, 6 and 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Three seated blood pressure measurements were taken on the right arm with a sphygmomanometer after the participant had been resting for at least 5 min. Blood pressure values were based on the average of the second and third measurements.
- Metabolic variables [ Time Frame: basal, 6 and 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Fasting glucose and insulin were measured in serum collected after an overnight fast using routine methods. Total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides were measured by using a routine enzymatic method, and the Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) level was calculated by using the Friedewald formula: [Total cholesterol (mg/dL) - High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) (mg/dL) - triglycerides (mg/dL)/5].
- Inflammatory markers [ Time Frame: basal, 6 and 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Serum visfatin, adiponectin, and homocysteine were measured by using an immunoenzymatic assay was measured by using an immunoenzymatic assay.
- Adverse events [ Time Frame: basal, 6 and 12 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]Participants were asked about symptoms at clinic visits every 6 months. Standard clinical evaluations and laboratory analyses, including hematologic, renal, and liver function tests, were done every 6 months. Endometrial thickness was evaluated by using ultrasonography at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year. The endometrial thickness was measured in the sagittal plane from 1 basal layer to the other. If the endometrial thickness was 8 mm or greater or if uterine bleeding occurred, hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy were performed. All unfavorable and unintended clinical effects were considered adverse effects and were evaluated for severity, duration, seriousness, and relation to the study drug and outcome.
|Study Start Date:||September 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||January 2011|
|Primary Completion Date:||November 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Placebo Comparator: Lifestyle counseling
Placebo tablets. All participants were counseled on an moderate hypocaloric, Mediterranean-style diet composed of 25% to 30% energy from fat, less than 10% energy from saturated fatty acids, 55% to 60% energy from carbohydrates, and 15% energy from protein, with a cholesterol intake less than 300 mg/d and fiber intake of 35 g/d or greater.
|Dietary Supplement: Placebo|
Genistein 54 mg/day in 2 tablets for 12 months. All participants were counseled on an moderate hypocaloric, Mediterranean-style diet composed of 25% to 30% energy from fat, less than 10% energy from saturated fatty acids, 55% to 60% energy from carbohydrates, and 15% energy from protein, with a cholesterol intake less than 300 mg/d and fiber intake of 35 g/d or greater.
|Dietary Supplement: Genistein|
The investigators studied whether genistein may represent an efficacious and safe alternative for reducing vascular risk in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. The clinical study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 150 patients with metabolic syndrome. After a 4-week stabilization on a standard fat-reduced diet, participants were randomly assigned to receive either phytoestrogen genistein (54 mg/day) or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and following treatment fasting plasma glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid concentrations, plasma total homocysteine, leptin, adiponectin and visfatin were measured. Bioimpedentiometric and nutritional analysis, as well as a safety assessment of the endometrium and vagina were also performed.
|University of Magnia Graecia|
|University of Messina|
|Messina, Italy, 98123|
|University of Palermo|
|Palermo, Italy, 90129|
|Principal Investigator:||Francesco Squadrito, MD||University of Messina|