Exercise Training With Physically Active Lifestyle to Reduce Headache and Quality of Life (HEADEX)
The aim of this intervention study is to examine whether tailored exercise therapy training is effective and cost-effective to decrease headache frequency and intensity, reduce medication used for chronic headache and patients´ absence from work, improve their neck muscle force, cervical spine mobility, functional ability and quality of life, and increase general physical activity in chronic headache women at regular work during a 6-month intervention.
The intervention itself with pilot-tested upper-neck specific exercise regimen aims that patients would independently commit to train and exercise to reduce their headache, and thus increase their quality of life. In addition, reduced pain and frequency of headache may increase the objectively measured daily physical activity of chronic headache patients.
Quality of Life
Behavioral: Training group
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Subject)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||EXERCISE TRAINING WITH PHYSICALLY ACTIVE LIFESTYLE TO REDUCE HEADACHE AND INCREASE QUALITY OF LIFE. A Randomised Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness and Cost-effectiveness of Exercise Training and Physical Activity on Chronic Headache|
- Change from baseline in headache intensity at 6 months [ Time Frame: At baseline and follow-up after 6-months intervention ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]The intensity of pain caused by headache is measured with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)which is a measurement instrument for subjective experience. The participants specify their level of pain by indicating a position along a continuous line between two end-points (0 to 100).
- Amount and intensity of weekly physical activity [ Time Frame: At baseline, after 6-mo, 12-mo,and 24-mo ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Objective assessment of daily physical activity during 7 days by accelerometer Hookie AM 20 Activity Meter, Hookie Technologies Ltd, Espoo, Finland.
- Health economics [ Time Frame: At baseline, after 6-mo, 12-mo, and 24-mo ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]To evaluate the cost-effectiveness the calculations will be based on the self-reported absence from work (off work because of headache, possible disability pension because of headache), cost of medical and pharmaceutical claims for headache, ergonomic changes at work ergonomic changes at work, and adverse events of training. Furthermore, the costs of the intervention including the salaries of the study personnel, individual grants for the members of the research team, and costs related to examination of the subjects are entered to the total costs.
- Quality of Life (QoL) [ Time Frame: At baseline, after 6-mo, 12-mo, and 24-mo ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The data will be collected with EORTC C-30 quality of life questionnaires (EORTC QOL C-30), the FACT Fatigue scale and mood, and the Beck depression inventory (BDI).
- Fear avoidance beliefs [ Time Frame: At baseline, after 6-mo, 12-mo, and 24-mo ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]Changes in fear-avoidance behaviour will be assessed with questionnaire on fear-avoidance beliefs (FABQ)addressing the behaviour both in work and leisure (Waddell et. al 1993)
- Frequency of headache [ Time Frame: At baseline, after 6-mo, 12-mo, and 24-mo ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]Participants keep diaries on daily basis in terms of number of headache periods and mail the diaries to the investigator every month,
- Disability [ Time Frame: At baseline, after 6-mo, 12-mo, and 24-mo ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]The participants will complete the Neck Disability Index (NDI)questionnaire with questions of ADL functioning
|Study Start Date:||September 2012|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||January 2015|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||January 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Training group
The rationale and means for the exercise program are to
Training is organised six times as a 60-min session during six months: two individually supervised sessions, and four following training sessions will be accomplished in groups of 10 participants guided by an experienced physical therapist. Three weekly similar home training sessions are recommended for participants. Information on amount of exercise sessions per week and repetitions of each exercise will be collected via exercise diary. To perform home training, a DVD and/or booklet will be provided to participants in the training group.
Behavioral: Training group
The 60-minute training sessions include a few mobilization techniques for upper neck. In detail, three different exercises concentrated on postural and motor control will be taught during the first two training sessions. Progressively, two additional exercise movements aiming at postural and motor control will be taught in the next session. After eight weeks, two muscle strength exercises utilising therapeutic rubber band will be included into the program. The aim of the rubber band exercises is eventually to achieve the load of 80% of maximal voluntary contraction. The participants in the training group are also instructed to increase their amount of physical activity progressively according to the current physical activity recommendations.
Sham Comparator: Control
The control group will receive six sessions of Transcutaneous Nervous Stimulation treatment (TNS) as a placebo treatment (0), and the participants in this group are recommended and encouraged to maintain their previous normal level of physical activity and exercise habits throughout the study without any supervision or home training programs.
The control group will receive six sessions of Transcutaneous Nervous Stimulation treatment (TNS) as a placebo treatment (0) and the participants in control group are recommended and encouraged to maintain their previous normal level of physical activity and exercise habits throughout the study without any supervision or home training programs.
Tension-type,migraine and cervicogenic headache are the most common reasons for visits to a primary care physician among working women. Headache has major economic impact due to patients' absence from work, and pharmacy claims. Neck symptoms induce three percent of all visits to a primary care physician and 1 % of all costs in health care, and moreover, institutionalizing increase costs of treatment. Active treatment may offer cost-effective option for outpatients. In addition, there is no data showing how much headache/neck pain restricts participation in physical activity (PA) or other activities in society.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether specific therapeutic exercises reduce cervicogenic headache cost-effectively, and simultaneously improve neck function and quality of life. The other aim is to evaluate the effect of exercises on daily PA in women with chronic headache.
The following hypotheses will be tested:
- Specific therapeutic exercises based on individual training reduce cost-effectively cervicogenic headache and improve neck function, and quality of life on women at regular work during a 6-month intervention
- The intervention increases general physical activity of women with cervicogenic headache
- The intervention assists them to manage the headache by way of exercising during the follow-up.
- Physical activity of women with chronic cervicogenic headache is lower than average in Finnish population.
The HEADEX intervention study is a randomized controlled trial. Volunteers, women at regular work and having ongoing status with chronic migraine and/or cervicogenic headache will be recruited using newspaper advertising, from the register of Finnish Migraine Society and occupational health care services in Helsinki, Tampere and Jyvaskyla. The study sample is restricted to women, as the headache is much more common in women. After recruitment, the eligibility of patients to participate is screened. In total, the aim is to obtain 120 women to participate. The two subsequent baseline assessments and follow-up of headaches with the diary between two months before the beginning of the intervention enable ensuring intensity and type of the headache and that it is chronic. Randomisation is centralised but the intervention will be accomplished and clustered in three study centres. Sample size has been estimated for the primary outcomes. The number of participant will be 60 women in treatment and 60 control group.
The 6 months exercise intervention consists of 6 supervised progressive exercise training sessions and home training program, and the participants are instructed to increase their PA. The main emphasis of the exercise program is to improve and relearn postural and movement control of neck, and later on strengthen the postural muscles. The exercise intervention consists of six supervised progressive exercise training sessions to teach rehabilitative training technique with similar home training program. Before the intervention, information on work ergonomics will be enquired and if needed, changes will be recommended. The control group will receive Transcutaneous Nervous Stimulation treatment (6 times) as a placebo treatment (intensity 0), and recommendation to maintain their PA at previous level. The follow-up is identical for both groups, and information on exercise frequency is collected up to 24 months follow-up.
|Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences|
|Helsinki, Finland, 00079|
|Jyväskylä Central Hospital, Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine|
|Jyväskylä, Finland, 40620|
|Tampere, Finland, 33500|
|Study Director:||Marjo B Rinne, PhD||UKK Institute|
|Principal Investigator:||Riku P Nikander, PhD||Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Department of Welfare and Human Functioning|
|Principal Investigator:||Arja H Häkkinen, PhD, Professor||University of Jyväskylä, Department of Health Sciences|
|Principal Investigator:||Jari J Ylinen, MD, DO, PhD||Jyväskylä Central Hospital, Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine|
|Principal Investigator:||Katriina Kukkonen-Harjula, MD||UKK Institute|