Establishing Nomograms of Penile Length and Width Throughout the Weeks of Pregnancy
The purpose of this study is to establish nomograms of penile length and width throughout the weeks of pregnancy.
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
|Official Title:||Establishing Nomograms of Penile Length and Width Throughout the Weeks of Pregnancy - A Prospective Descriptive Study.|
- Penile length [ Time Frame: between 14 and 37 weeks gestation ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
- Penile width [ Time Frame: between 14 and 37 weeks gestation ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
|Study Start Date:||July 2012|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||July 2014|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date:||July 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Identifying pathology of male genitalia is important. It can be an isolated pathology, or connected to disorders in other organs, as part of genetic syndromes or endocrine disorders. Micropenis is a disorder, which is important to diagnose in the womb. Micropenis is defined as a penis which is measured 2.5 standard deviation below average. It is also thinner by diameter. This finding can also be the first expression of a lethal hormonal deficiency, hence the reason for early detection by ultrasound during pregnancy.
Past prenatal diagnosis ultrasound studies, measured the penis from the scrotum to the tip of the penis. Another study evaluated formalin fixated fetuses after pregnancy terminations, in which the penis was measured from the abdominal wall to the tip of the penis. To date there are no nomograms for penile length, via ultrasound measurement from abdominal wall or for penile width. The investigators assume that measuring the penis from the abdominal wall is more accurate and standard than from the end of the scrotum, which is a less definitive reference point.
The investigators aim to establish nomograms of penile length throughout the weeks of pregnancy. Exceptional penile width can also point out a problem with male genitalia. Therefore the investigators wish, as well to establish nomograms of penile width.
|OBGYN Ultrasound Unit, Carmel Medical Center|
|Principal Investigator:||Yael Goldberg, MD||Head of Obstetrics and Gynecologic Ultrasound Unit, The Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center, Affiliated with the Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa, Israel|